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Flashcards in BONES AND MUSCLES FACE Deck (23)
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1

What are the major compartments of the head

Cranial cavity:
anterior/middle/posterior cranial fossa

2 ears
2 orbits
2 nasal cavities
1 oral cavity

2

What are the different paranasal air sinuses and where are they located

Maxillary: lateral to nasal cavity

Frontal: superior to nasal cavity and eyes

sphenoidal: superior to nasal cavity, medial to eyes

Ethmoid: posterior to nasal cavity

3

What are the functions skull

Supports and protects the brain

Special sense organs

Site for voice, expression, mastication

first part of the respiratory and digestive systems

attachment site for muscles of the head and neck

4

What are the bones of the neurocranium

Frontal
ethmoidal
Sphenoidal
Occipital
Temporal (x2)
Parietal (x2)

5

Describe the ethmoid bone

Anterior floor of cranium, roof of nasal cavity, medial wall of orbits.

Contains paranasal air sinuses

Crista galli projects from ethmoid bone

6

Describe the sphenoid bone

Keystone of skull.

Contains paranasal air sinuses

Encloses pituitary gland,

provides attachments for lower jaw muscles

transmits optic nerve

7

Describe the temporal bones

Squamous part (front upper) and petrous part (wedged between sphenoid and occipital)

connect to auditory meatus

carotid canal passageway for internal carotid artery

8

Describe occipital bone

Posterior foramen magnum, squamous part and basilar part.

Hypoglossal canal, occipital condyles

9

What are the coronal sutures

Spaces where cranial bones meet

Coronal: parietal and frontal

Squamous: parietal and temporal

Lambdoid: parietal and occipital

Sagittal: 2 parietals

10

What are the facial bones

Frontal
Zygomatic
Nasal
Maxilla
Mandible (2 bodies fuse in middle at chin)

11

What is the function of fontanelles

Spaces between cranial bones at birth to allow for brain growth and passage through birth canal

Posterior closes at 9 months

Anterior closes at 15-24 months

12

What does the external carotid artery branch into

Occipital
posterior auricular
maxillary
superficial temporal
facial
lingual

supplies parts of face and posterior cranium

13

what does the internal carotid artery supply

Anterior and middle cerebral parts of brain and eyes

14

Outline the muscles of facial expression

Occipitofrontalis: raised eyebrows

Orbicularis oculi: wink and blink

Orbicularis oris: duck face

Buccinator: blow out cheeks

15

Outline the muscles of mastication

Move mandible. Innervated by trigeminal nerve

Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid: jaw closing muscles

Lateral pterygoid: jaw opener

16

Outline the extrinsic muscles of the eye

Control position of eye. Innervated by oculomotor nerve

4 rectus: superior, inferior, lateral, medial

2 oblique: superior, inferior

17

What are the muscles of the tongue

Palatoglossus
Styloglossus
Hyoglossus
Genioglossus

18

Outline the muscles of the pharynx

Superior/middle/inferior pharyngeal constrictors found in oro and laryngopharynx

19

Outline the extrinsic muscles of the larynx

Move larynx superiorly and inferiorly, 2 groups

Suprahyoid group: Attach to hyoid and either mandible or temporal bone
if mandible fixed = elevate hyoid (swallowing)
if hyoid fixed = depress mandible (mastication)
ELEVATE

infrahyoid group: attach to hyoid, thyroid cartilage and strenum. Sternohoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid
DEPRESS

20

What bones meet at the pterion region on the lateral aspect of the cranium

Parietal, Frontal, Sphenoid, Temporalis

21

What are the layers of the scalp

skin
CT
aponeurosis
loose areolar tissue
pericranium

22

What are the tonsils

Lymph nodes part of the immune system

2 palatine tonsils at base/root of tongue

lingual tonsils located at base/root of tongue, superior to epiglottis

Pharyngeal tonsils: also called adenoids, located in roof and posterior wall of nasopharynx

23

What are the functions of the para nasal sinuses

Air filled that drain roof and lateral walls of nasal cavity

Decrease skull weight

Humidify air

Insulate structures from rapid temp change

Increase resonance of voice

Immunological defense