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Flashcards in Bone Tumours Deck (86)
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1

List the malignant bone tumours

Osteosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma
Myeloma -1% of all malignancies
Metastases
Ewing's sarcoma
2% of enchondromas

2

List the non-malignant bone tumours

Osteoblastoma
Osteochondroma
Giant cell tumour
Osteoid osteomas
Most enchondromas

3

Tissue type of osteosarcomas

Pleomorphic osteoid producing osteoblasts

4

Osteoblastoma cell type

Osteoblasts

5

Osteochondroma cell type

Growth plate cells

6

Chondrosarcoma cell type

Chondrocytes

7

Myeloma cell type

Plasma cells of bone marrow

8

Metastases main cell types

Lung
Prostate
Breast
Thyroid
Renal

9

Ewing's sarcoma cell type

Neuroectodermal

10

Giant cell tumour cell type

Osteoclasts

11

Osteoid osteomas cell type

Osteoblasts

12

Enchondroma cell type

Cartilage

13

Main presentations of osteosarcomas

Chronic inflammatory response
Bone pain -worse at night
Pulmonary symptoms if Mets
Fever
Swelling

14

Osteoblastoma main presentations

Nidus of over 1.5cm
Avascular necrosis
Spinal nerve compression
Slow progressive pain
Not relieved by NSAIDs
Swelling
Muscle
Atrophy
Limp

15

Osteochondroma main presentations

Palpable, non tender, bony lump that is firm and immobile potentially causing spinal nerve compression and avascular necrosis

16

Chondrosarcoma main presentations

Chronic inflammatory response with pulmonary symptoms if Mets are present

17

Myeloma main presentations

Localised bone pain
Pathological fracture
Fatigue
Aneamia

18

Mets main presentations

Chronic inflammatory response with primary cancer symptoms

19

Ewing's sarcoma presentation

Chronic inflammatory response

20

Giant cell tumour presentation

Pain and swelling

21

Osteoid osteomas presentation

Nidus of less than 1.5cm
Worse pain at night
May block sinuses and nasal cavity with polypatous growth
Pain relieved by NSAIDs

22

Enchondroma presentation

Incidentally found

23

X ray findings of osteosarcoma

Lytic bone lesions
Sunburst spicules
Codman's triangle - very destructive if this appears

24

X ray findings of osteoblastomas

Eroded ring of surrounding bone
Lytic or mixed lytic-blastic lesion with radiolucent nidus > 2cm
Reactive sclerotic bone

25

X-ray findings of osteochondroma

Lateral bony projection (exostosis) with a hyaline cartilage cap

26

X-ray findings of chondrosarcoma

Lytic patchy lesions that look moth eaten in the medullary cavity
Reactive thickening of the cortex
Popcorn lesions may be seen

27

X-ray findings of myeloma

Punched out lytic lesions in metaphysis

28

Ewing's sarcoma X ray findings

Onion Skinning

29

Giant cell tumour X ray findings

Multicystic bone lesion (soap bubbles) extending to cartilage through epiphysis

30

Osteoid osteomas x-ray findings

Intensely reactive bone around radiolucent nidus