Meningitis Flashcards Preview

Things I Get Stuck On > Meningitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Meningitis Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

Epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis

Children and young adults
<10% are >5 years

2

Epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis

Children and young adults
<10% are >5 years

3

What must you do in cases of meningococcal meningitis

Notify local health protection consultant

4

Clinical features of meningococcal meningitis

Sepsis
Sudden onset
Purpuric rash
Unconsciousness
Fever
Sterile CSF
Waterhouse-Freidrichsen syndrome
Renal failure
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 

5

Treatment of meningococcal meningitis

1st line is parenteral penicillin
2nd line high dose ceftriaxone then benzylpenicillin

6

Complications of meningococcal meningitis

50% die within first 24 hours and if it becomes chronic it is known as fulminant

7

Prognosis of meningococcal meningitis

Over 50% mortality, if they survive, sent home with rifampicin or ciprofloxacin

8

Prevention and prophylaxis of meningococcal meningitis

Men C and Men B vaccine
Rifampicin to r ciprofloxacin for all those who have been in contact with the sick

9

Pneumococcal meningitis epidemiology

Most frequent bacterial cause in adults

10

Clinical features of pneumococcal meningitis

Predisposing pneumonia
Sinusitis
Endocarditis
Head trauma
Alcoholism
Splenectomy
Altered consciousness
Petechiae - uncommon

11

Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis

Early, high dose ceftriaxone
If uncomplicated then dexamethasone

12

Complications of pneumococcal meningitis

Death
Hearing loss
Cranial nerve defects
Hemiparesis
Hydrocephalus
Siezures

13

Mortality of pneumococcal meningitis

30-50%

14

Prevention of pneumococcal meningitis

Pneumococcal vaccine (pneumovax or prevnar)

15

Epidemiology of Heamophilus influenzae type B meningitis

Young children
Often preceded by URTI with otitis media

16

Clinical features ofHeamophilus influenzae type B meningitis

Fever
Lethargy
Drowsiness
Rarely petechiae
No nuchal rigidity

17

Treatment of Heamophilus influenzae type B meningitis

Cefotaxime
Dexamethasone if very serious

18

Prevention/prophylaxis of Heamophilus influenzae type B meningitis

Rifampicin for all those who have had close contact
Vaccinato

19

Listeria monocytogenes meningitis epidemiology

Neonates
Older people
Immunosuppressed

20

Listeria monocytogenes meningitis clinical features

Typical meningism

21

Listeria monocytogenes meningitis treatment

IV ampicillin

22

Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis epidemiology

Elderly men
Alcoholics
Post miliary tb

23

Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis clinical features

Often post miliary in children
Extrameningeal TB in 3/4 of adult
Subacutely presents with lethargy, chronic headache, mentation change, unconsciousness and meningitis

24

Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis investigations

CSF studies
CXR
PCR
CT head

25

Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis complications

Neurological
Lung scarring

26

Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis prognosis

Poor in extremes of age, neurological deficits or resistant organisms

27

Leptospirosis and Lyme disease meningitis clinical features

"Aseptic meningitis"
Septicaemia with rigors
Myalgia
Vomiting
Conjunctival effusion
Meningism followed by rash

28

Leptospirosis and Lyme disease meningitis treatment

IV cephalosporins or penicillin for 2-3 weeks

29

Leptospirosis and Lyme disease meningitis complications

Hepato-renal damage
Cranial beiropathies

30

Leptospirosis and Lyme disease meningitis prognosis

Good with early treatment