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Flashcards in Bones of the Feet Deck (80):
1

What is the purpose of the bones of the foot?

Provide mechanical support for the soft tissues, helping the foot withstand the weight of the body

2

What can the bones of the foot be divided into?

Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges

3

What are the tarsals?

A set of seven irregularly shaped bones

4

Where are the tarsals situated?

Proximally in the foot, in the ankle area

5

What do the metatarsals do?

Connect the phalanges to the tarsals

6

How many metatarsals are there?

5- one for each digit

7

What are the phalanges?

The bones of the toes

8

What does each toe have?

Three phalanges- a proximal, intermediate and distal, apart from the big two which also has two

9

How are the tarsal bones organised?

Into three rows, proximal, intermediate, and distal

10

What are the proximal tarsal bones?

Talus 
Calcaneus

11

What do the proximal tarsal bones form?

The bony framework around the proximal ankle and heel area

12

What is the most superior of the tarsal bones?

Talus

13

Where does the talus have articulations?

Superiorly 
Inferiorly 
Anteriorly

14

What is formed with the superior articulation of the talus?

Ankle joint

15

What is the superior articulation of the talus between?

The talus and the bones of the leg (tibula and fibula)

16

What is formed with the inferior articulation of the talus?

Subtalar joint

17

What is the inferior articulation of the talus between?

The talus and calcaneus

18

What is formed with the anterior articulation of the talus?

Talonavicular joint

19

What is the anterior articulation of the talus between?

Talus and navicular

20

What is the main function of the talus?

To transmit forces from the tibia to the heel bone (calcaneus)

21

What is the talus the site of?

Numerus ligament attachments

22

Where does the calcaneus lie?

Underneath the talus

23

Where does the calcaneus articulate?

Superiorly
Anteriorly

24

What is formed with the superior articulation of the calcaneus?

Subtalar joint

25

What does the calcaneus articulate with superiorly?

The talus

26

What is formed with the anterior articulation of the calcaneus?

Calcaneocuboid joint

27

What does the calcaneus articulate with anteriorly?

The cuboid

28

What does the calcaneus act to do?

Transmit forces from the talus to the ground

29

What is the posterior aspect of the calcaneus marked by?

The calcaneal tuberosity

30

What attaches to the calcaneal tuberosity?

The Achilles tendon

31

What does the intermediate row of tarsal bones contain?

The navicular

32

What does the navicular articulate with posteriorly?

The talus

33

What does the navicular articulate with anteriorly?

The cuneiform bones

34

What does the navicular bone articulate with laterally?

The cuboid bone

35

What is found on the plantar surface of the navicular?

A tuberosity for the attachment of the tibialis posterior tendon

36

What are the bones in the distal row of the carpal bones?

Cuboid 
Three cuneiforms

37

What do the carpal bones in the distal row articulate with?

The metatarsals of the foot

38

What is the most lateral bone in the distal row of the tarsals?

Cuboid

39

What does the cuboid bone articulate with posteriorly?

The calcaneus

40

What does the cuboid bone articulate with anteriorly?

Two metatarsals

41

What is the inferior surface of the cuboid bone marked by?

A groove for the fibularis longus muscle

42

What are the cuneiforms?

Lateral
Intermediate
Medial

43

What shape are the cuneiform bones?

Wedge shaped

44

What do the cuneiforms articulate with posteriorly?

The navicular

45

What do the cuneiforms articulate with anteriorly?

Metatarsals

46

Why is the shape of the cunieforms important?

It helps from a transverse arch across the foot

47

Where do the talus and calcaneus sit?

In the proximal part of the foot and ankle

48

What are the talus and calcaneus involved in?

Transmitting forces from the body to the ground

49

What is the result of the talus and calcaneus transmitting forces from the body to the ground?

They are the most frequently fractured of all the tarsal bones

50

Where can talar farctures occur?

The neck of the talus or the body

51

What are neck of the talus fracture caused by?

Excessive dorsiflexion of the foot

52

Why does excessive dorsiflexion of the foot cause neck of the talus fractures?

Because the neck of the talus is pushed against the tibia

53

What can happen in neck of the talus fracture?

The blood supply to the talus may be disturbed, leading to avascular necrosis of the bone

54

How do body of the talus fractures usually occur?

From jumping from a heigh

55

What happens in any fracture of the talus?

The malleoli of the leg bones act to hold the fragments together, so there is little displacement of the fracture pieces

56

How is the calcaneus most often fractured?

In a ‘crush’ type injury

57

What is the most common mechanism of injury for a calcaneus fracture?

Falling onto the heel from a height

58

Why does falling onto the heel from a height cause a calcaneus injury?

The talus is driven into the calcaneus

59

What can happen when the calcaneus fractures?

The bone can break into several pieces

60

What is it known as when the bone breaks into several pieces?

A comminuted fracture

61

How will a comminuted calcaneus appear on a x-ray?

Shorter and wider

62

Why may a calcaneal fracture cause problems even after treatment?

The sub-talar joint is usually disrupted, causing the joint to become arthritic

63

When will a patient with an arthritic sub-talar joint experience pain?

Upon inversion and eversion

64

Where are the metatarsals located?

In the midfoot, between the tarsals and phalanges

65

What are the metatarsals numbered?

I-V (medial to lateral)

66

What does each metatarsal consist of?

Distal head Proximal base
Shaft

67

How many articulations do the metatarsals have?

3 or 4

68

What is formed in the proximal articulation of metatarsals?

Tarsometatarsal joint

69

What is involved in the tarsometatarsal joints?

Metatarsal bases and cuneiforms or cuboid bones

70

What is formed in the lateral articulation of metatarsals?

Intermetatarsal joint(s)

71

What is involved in the intermetatarsal joint(s)?

Metatarsal and the adjacent metatarsals

72

What is formed in the distal articulation of the metatarsals?

Metatarsophalangeal joint

73

What is involved in the metatarsophalangeal joints?

Metatarsal head and the proximal phalanx.

74

How can metatarsal fractures occur?

Direct blow to foot 
Stress fracture
Excessive inversion of foot

75

What is a stress fracture?

An incomplete fracture caused by repeated stress to the bone

76

Where does metatarsal stress fractures most commonly occur?

In metatarsals II, III and IV

77

How can excessive inversion of the foot fracture the metatarsals?

If the foot is violently inverted, the fibularis brevis muscle can avulse the base of metatarsal V

78

What are the phalanges?

The bones of the toes

79

What do most toes have?

Three phalanges- proximal, intermediate and distal

80

What does the great toe have?

Proximal and distal phalanges