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Flashcards in Posterior Thigh Muscles Deck (35):
1

What are the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh known as?

The hamstrings

2

What do the hamstrings consist of?

Biceps femoris  Semitendinosus 
Semimembranosus

3

What do the hamstrings do as a group?

Extend at the hip and flex at the knee

4

What are the hamstrings innervated by?

The sciatic nerve (L4-S3) as it descends through the thigh

5

What to the hamstrings form?

Prominent tendons medially and laterally at the back of the knee

6

What does the biceps femoris have?

Two heads, a long and a short

7

Where does the biceps femoris lie?

More laterally

8

Where can the common tendon of the two heads be felt?

Laterally at the posterior knee

9

What is the proximal attachment of the long head of the biceps femoris?

Ischial tuberosity

10

What is the proximal attachment of the short head of the biceps femoris?

Linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of the femur

11

What is the distal attachment of the biceps femoris?

Lateral side of the head of the fibula

12

What happens to the biceps tendon at the lateral side of the head of the femur?

It is split by the fibular collateral ligament of the knee

13

What is the innervation of the long head of the biceps femoris?

Tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)

14

What is the innervation of the short head of the biceps femoris?

Common fibular division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)

15

What is the arterial supply of the biceps femoris?

Perforating arteries of the deep femoral artery

16

What is the main action of the biceps femoris?

Flexes leg and laterally rotates it when the knee is flexed
Extends thigh

17

What can be said of the semitendinosus?

It is a largely tendinous muscle

18

Where does the semitendinosus muscle lie?

Medially to the biceps femoris

19

What does the semitendinosus cover?

The majority of the semimembranosus

20

What is the proximal attachment of the semitendinosus?

Ischial tuberosity

21

What is the distal attachment of the semitendinosus?

Medial surface of the superior part of tibia

22

What do the semitendinosus and semimembranosus share?

Innervation 
Action
Arterial supply 
Proximal attachment

23

What shape is the semimembranosus?

Flattened, broad

24

Where is the semimembranosus muscle located?

Underneath the semitendinosus

25

What is the proximal attachment of the semimembranosus?

Ischial tuberosity

26

What is the distal attachment of the semimembranosus?

Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia

27

What does the reflected attachment of the semimembranosus form

The oblique popliteal ligament to lateral femoral condyle

28

What is the innervation of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus?

Tibial division of the sciatic nerve part of tibia (L5, S1, S2)

29

What is the arterial supply of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus?

Perforating arteries of deep femoral arteries

30

What is the main action of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus?

Extend thigh 
Flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed 
When knee and leg are flexed, can extend trunk

31

What does a hamstring strain refer to?

Excessive stretch or tearing of the muscle fibres

32

What is damage to the hamstring muscle fibres likely to do?

Rupture surrounding blood vessels, causing a haemotoma

33

What contains a haemotoma formed by hamstring strain?

The overlying fascia lata

34

When does an avulsion fracture occur?

When a fragment of bone breaks away from the main body of bone

35

What happens in an avulsion fracture of the ischial tuberosity?

The hamstring tendons ‘tear off’ a piece of the ischial tuberosity