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Flashcards in Elbow Joint Deck (53):
1

What is the elbow?

The joint connecting the proper arm to the forearm

2

How is the elbow marked on the upper limb?

By the medial and lateral epicondyles, and the olecranon process

3

Structurally, what is the elbow classed as?

A synovial joint

4

Functionally, what is the elbow classed as?

A hinge joint

5

What does the elbow consist of?

The articulation of the trochlea notch of the ulna and trochlea of the humerus 
The articulation of the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus

6

What does the orientation of the bones forming the elbow joint produce?

A hinge type synovial joint

7

What does the elbow joint allow for?

Extension and flexion of the forearm

8

What produces extension at the elbow joint?

Triceps brachii and anconeus

9

What produces flexion at the elbow joint?

Brachialis, biceps brachii, brachioradialis

10

Do pronation and supination occur at the elbow?

No, they are produced at the nearby radioulnar joints

11

What does the elbow joint have?

A capsule enclosing the joint

12

How can the capsule of the elbow joint be described?

Strong and fibrous

13

What does the joint capsule do in itself?

Strengthens the joint

14

Where is the joint capsule of the elbow thickened?

Medially and laterally

15

What is formed when the joint capsule of the elbow thickens medially and laterally?

Collateral ligaments

16

What is the purpose of the collateral ligaments of the elbow joint?

They stabilise the flexing and extending motion of the arm

17

Where is the radial collateral ligament found?

On the lateral side of the elbow joint, extending from the lateral epicondyle, and blending with the anular ligament of the radius

18

What is the anular ligament of the radius?

A ligament from the proximal radioulnar joint

19

Where does the ulnar collateral ligament originate from?

The medial epicondyle

20

Where does the ulnar collateral ligament attach to?

The coronoid process and olecranon of the ulna

21

What do bursae prevent?

Degenerative damage

22

What are the clinically important bursae of the elbow joint?

Intratendinosus 
Subtendinosus 
Subcutaneous

23

Where is the intratendinosus bursae formed?

Within the tendon of the triceps brachii

24

Where is the subtendinosus bursae found?

Between the olecranon and the tendon of the triceps brachii

25

What is the purpose of the subtendinosus bursae?

Reduce friction between the two structures during extension and flexion of the arm

26

Where is the subcutaneous bursa found?

Between the olecranon and the overlying connective tissue

27

Why are bursae clinically important?

They can become irritated and inflamed, producing pain

28

What is subcutaneous bursitis?

Inflammation of the subcutaneous bursa

29

What can cause the bursa to become inflamed?

Repeated friction and pressure on the bursa

30

What can happen to the subcutaneous bursa?

It can become infected, which would cause inflammation

31

Why can the subcutaneous bursa get infected?

Because the bursa lies relatively superficially

32

What causes subtendinosus bursitis?

Repeated flexion and extension of the forearm

33

What usually happens in subtendinosus bursitis?

Usually, flexion is more painful as more pressure is put on the bursa

34

When does an elbow dislocation usually occur?

When a young child falls on a hand with the elbow flexed

35

What happens in an elbow dislocation?

The distal end of the humerus is driven through the weakest part of the joint capsule

36

What is the weakest part of the joint capsule of the elbow joint?

The anterior side

37

What usually happens in an elbow dislocation?

The ulnar collateral ligament is usually torn, and their can also be ulnar nerve involvement

38

In what direction are most elbow dislocations?

Posterior

39

How are elbow dislocations named?

By the position of the ulna and radius, not humerus

40

What do most of the flexor and extensor muscles in forearm have?

A common tendinous origin

41

Where do the flexor muscles originate from?

The medial epicondyle

42

Where do the extensor muscles originate from?

The lateral epicondyle

43

What can sportspeople develop?

An overuse strain of the common tendon of the flexor and extensor muscles

44

What does an overuse strain of the common tendon result in?

Pain and inflammation around the area of the affected epicondyle

45

What is overuse strain of the common tendon called?

Epicondylitis (Tennis elbow, or Golfer’s Elbow)

46

How does a supraepicondylar fracture occur?

By falling on a flexed elbow

47

What kind of fracture is a supraepicondylar fracture?

A transverse fracture

48

Where does a supraepicondylar fracture span?

Between the two epicondyles

49

What can a supraepicondylar fracture cause?

Interference to the blood supply of the forearm via the brachial artery
Damage to the medial, ulnar or radial nerves

50

Why can a supraepicondylar fracture lead to interference to the brachial artery?

Due to direct damage, or swelling

51

What can the resulting ischaemia from disruption to the blood supply caused by a supraepicondylar fracture lead to?

Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture

52

What happens in a Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture?

Uncontrolled flexion of the hand

53

What causes Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture?

The flexor muscles become fibrotic and short