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Flashcards in Gluteal Region Deck (76):
1

What is the gluteal region?

An anatomical area located posteriorly to the pelvic girdle, at the proximal end of the femur

2

What do the muscles in the gluteal region do?

Move the lower limb at the hip joint

3

How can the muscles of the gluteal region be divided?

Superficial abductors and extenders
Deep lateral rotators

4

What are the superficial abductors and extenders?

A group of large muscles that abduct and extend the femur

5

What muscles are considered superficial abductors and extenders?

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius 
Gluteus minimis 
Tensor fascia lata

6

What are the deep lateral rotators?

A group of smaller muscles that mainly act to laterally rotate the femur

7

What muscles are considered to be the deep lateral rotators?

Quadratus femoris 
Piriformis 
Gemellus superior 
Gemellus inferior 
Obturator internus

8

What do the superficial gluteal muscles act to do?

Mainly to abduct and extend the lower limb at the hip joint

9

What is the largest of the gluteal muscles?

Gluteus maximus

10

What does the gluteus maximus produce?

The shape of the buttocks

11

What is the proximal attachment of the gluteus maximus?

Ilium posterior to the posterior gluteal line 
Dorsal surface of the sacrum coccyx 
Sacrotuberuous ligament

12

What is the distal attachment of the gluteus maximus?

Most fibres end in the iliotibial tract, which inserts into the lateral condyle of the tibia 
Some fibres insert on the gluteal tuberosity

13

What is the innervation of the gluteus maximus?

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)

14

What is the arterial supply of the gluteus maximus?

Superior gluteal artery 
Inferior gluteal artery

15

What is the main action of the gluteus maximus?

Extends the thigh, especially from flexed position, and assists in its lateral rotation
Steadies the thigh and assists in rising from the sitting position

16

What shape is the gluteus medius?

Fan shaped

17

Where does the gluteus medius lie?

Between the gluteus maximus and the minimus

18

What is the proximal attachment of the gluteus medius?

External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines

19

What is the distal attachment of the gluteus medius?

Lateral surface of greater trochanter of the femur

20

What is the innervation of the gluteus medius?

Superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)

21

What is the arterial supply of the gluteus medius?

Superior gluteal artery

22

What assists the gluteus medius in its action?

The gluteus minimus and tensor fasciae latae

23

Where does the gluteus minimus lie?

Deep to the other superficial gluteal muscles

24

What is the proximal attachment of the gluteus minimus?

External surface of the ilium between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines

25

What is the distal attachment of the gluteus minimus?

The anterior surface of the greater trochanter of femur

26

What is the innervation of the gluteus minimus?

Superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)

27

What is the arterial supply of the gluteus minimus?

The superior gluteal artery

28

Where does the tensor fasciae latae lie?

Towards the anterior edge of the iliac crest

29

What does the tensor fasciae latae function to do?

Tighten the fascia lata

30

What is the proximal attachment of the tensor fasciae latae?

Anterior superior iliac spine
Anterior part of the iliac crest

31

What is the distal attachment of the tensor fasciae latae?

Iliotibial tract, which attaches to the lateral condyle of the tibia

32

What is the innervation of the tensor fasciae latae?

Superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)

33

What is the arterial supply of the tensor fasciae latae?

Superior gluteal artery

34

What is the main action of the gluteus medius, minimus, and tensor fasciae latae?

Abduct and medially rotate the thigh 
Keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight-bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase

35

Where do the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus have an important role?

In stabilising the pelvis during locomotion

36

What innervates the gluteus medius and minimus?

The superior gluteal nerve

37

When happens in the standing position when the conterolateral leg is raised?

The gluteus minimus and medius contract, preventing the pelvis from dropping to that side

38

What happens if the superior gluteal nerve is damaged?

The gluteus minimus and medius are paralysed, and the pelvis becomes unsteady, giving Trendelenbergs sign

39

When is the Trendelenberg sign produced?

When the patient is asked to stand unassisted on each leg in turn

40

What will happen in a positive Trendelenberg sign?

Pelvic drop will occur on the unsupported leg

41

How is pelvic drop recognised?

By looking for the level of the iliac crests on both sides

42

Where are the deep gluteal muscles located?

Underneath the gluteus minimus

43

What is the general action of the deep gluteal muscles?

To laterally rotate the limb 
To stabilise the hip joint

44

How do the deep gluteal muscles stabilise the hip joint?

By ‘pulling’ the femoral head into the acetabulum of the pelvis

45

Which muscles are considered to be deep gluteal?

Piriformis 
Obturator internus 
Superior and inferior gemelli 
Quadratus femoris

46

Where does the piriformis lie?

Most superior of the gluteal muscles

47

What is the proximal attachment of the piriformis?

Anterior surface of sacrum 
Sarcotuberous ligament

48

What is the distal attachment of the piriformis?

Superior border of greater trochanter of the femur

49

What is the innervation of the piriformis?

Branches of the anterior rami of S1, S2

50

What is the arterial supply of the piriformis?

Superior gluteal artery 
Inferior gluteal artery
Internal pudendal artery

51

What does the piriformis work with for its main action?

The obturator internus and the superior and inferior gemelli

52

What does the obturator internus form?

The lateral walls of the pelvic cavity

53

What is the proximal attachment of the obturator internus?

The pelvic surface of the obturator membrane and surrounding bones

54

What is the distal attachment of the obturator internus?

Medial surface of the greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) of the femur

55

What is the innervation of the obturator internus?

Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1)

56

What is the arterial supply to the obturator internus?

Obturator artery

57

What are the gemelli?

Two narrow and triangular muscles

58

What separates the superior and inferior gemelli?

The obturator internus tendon

59

What is the proximal attachment of the superior gemelli?

Ischial spine

60

What is the proximal attachment of the inferior gemelli?

Ischial tuberosity

61

What is the distal attachment of the superior and inferior gemelli?

Medial surface of the greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) of femur

62

What is the innervation of the superior gemellus?

Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1)

63

What is the innervation of the inferior gemellus?

Nerve to quadratus femoris (L5, S1)

64

What is the arterial supply of the superior and inferior gemelli?

Inferior gluteal artery

65

What is the main action of the piriformis, obturator internus and superior and inferior gemelli?

Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh
Steady femoral head in acetabulum

66

Where is the quadratus femoris?

The most inferior of the deep gluteal muscles, located below the gemelli and obturator internus

67

What is the proximal attachment of the quadratus femoris?

Lateral border of the ischial tuberosity

68

What is the distal attachment of the quadratus femoris?

Quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest of femur and area inferior to it

69

What is the innervation of the quadratus femoris?

Nerve to the quadratus femoris (L5, S1)

70

What is the arterial supply of the quadratus femoris?

Inferior gluteal artery

71

What is the main action of the quadratus femoris?

Laterally rotates thigh
Steadies femoral head in the acetabulum

72

What is the anatomical landmark of the gluteal region?

The piriformis

73

What happens as the piriformis travels through the greater sciatic foramen?

It effectively divides the gluteal region into an inferior and superior part

74

What does the division of the piriformis determine?

The name of the nerves and vessels that supply that area

75

What can the piriformis be used to locate?

The sciatic nerve

76

Where does the sciatic nerve enter the gluteal region?

Directly inferior to the piriformis