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Flashcards in Muscles of the Hand Deck (97):
1

What can the muscles acting on the hand be divided into?

Two groups, extrinsic and intrinsic muscles

2

Where are the extrinsic hand muscles located?

In the anterior and posterior compartment of the forearm

3

What are the extrinsic hand muscles responsible for?

Control crude movements 
Produce forceful grip

4

Where are the intrinsic muscles of the hand located?

Within the hand itself

5

What are the intrinsic muscles of the hand responsible for?

Fine motor functions of the hand

6

What are the intrinsic muscles of the hand?

Adductor pollicis 
Interossei 
Thenar muscles 
Lumbricals 
Hypothenar muscles

7

What are the thenar muscles?

Three short muscles, the oppens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis

8

Where are the thenar muscles located?

At the base of the thumb

9

What do the muscle bellies of the thenar muscles produce?

A bulge, known as the thenar eminence

10

What are the thenar muscles responsible for?

The fine movements of the thumb

11

What innervates the thenar muscles?

The median nerve

12

What is the largest of the thenar muscles?

Opponens Pollicis

13

Where does the oppenens pollicis lie?

Underneath the other two thenar muscles

14

What is the proximal attachment of the opponens pollicis?

Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

15

What is the distal attachment of the opponens pollicis?

Lateral side of 1st metacarpal

16

What is the innervation of the opponens pollicis?

Recurrent branch of the median nerve (C8, T1)

17

What is the arterial supply of the opponens pollicis?

Superficial palmar branch of radial artery

18

What is the action of the opponens pollicis?

To oppose thumb, it draws 1st metacarpal medially to centre or palm and rotates it medially

19

Where is the abductor pollicis brevis found?

Anteriorly to the opponens pollicis, and proximal to the flexor pollicis brevis

20

What is the proximal attachment of the abductor pollicis brevis?

Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

21

What is the distal attachment of the abductor pollicis brevis?

Lateral side of the proximal phalanx of thumb

22

What is the innervation of the abductor pollicis brevis?

Recurrent branch of medial nerve (C8, T1)

23

What is the arterial supply of the abductor pollicis brevis?

Superficial palmar branch of radial artery

24

What is the main action of the abductor pollicis brevis?

Abducts thumb, helps oppose it

25

Where is the flexor pollicis brevis found?

The most distal of the thenar muscles

26

What does the flexor pollicis brevis have?

Superficial head and deep head

27

What is the proximal attachment of the flexor pollicis brevis?

Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

28

What is the distal attachment of the flexor pollicis brevis?

Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

29

What is the innervation of the superficial head of the flexor pollicis brevis?

Recurrent branch of median nerve (C8, T1)

30

What is the innervation of the deep head of the flexor pollicis brevis?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

31

What is the arterial supply of the flexor pollicis brevis?

Superficial palmar branch of radial artery

32

What is the main action of the flexor pollicis brevis?

Flexes thumb

33

What do the hypothenar muscles produce?

The hypothenar eminence

34

What is the hypothenar eminence?

A muscular protrusion on the medial side of the palm, at the base of the little finger

35

What are the hypothenar muscles?

Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi brevis 
Opponens digiti minimi

36

Where does the opponens digiti minimi lie?

Deep to the other hypothenar muscles

37

What is the proximal attachment of the oppenens digiti minimi?

Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

38

What is the distal attachment of the opponens digiti minimi?

Medial border of 5th metacarpal

39

What is the innervation of the opponens digiti minimi?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

40

What is the arterial supply of the opponens digiti minimi?

Ulnar artery

41

What is the main action of the opponens digiti minimi?

Draws the 5th metacarpal anterior and rotates it, bringing 5th digit into opposition with thumb

42

Where does the abductor digiti minimi lie?

Most superficial of hypothenar muscles

43

What is the proximal attachment of the abductor digiti minimi?

Pisiform

44

What is the distal attachment of the abductor digiti minimi?

Medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx

45

What is the innervation of the abductor digiti minimi?

Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

46

What is the arterial supply of the abductor digiti minimi?

Ulnar artery

47

What is the main action of the abductor digiti minimi?

Abducts 5th digit, assists in flexion of its proximal phalanx

48

Where does the flexor digiti minimi brevis lie?

Laterally to the abductor digiti minimi

49

What is the proximal attachment of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?

Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

50

What is the distal attachment of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?

Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit

51

What is the innervation of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

52

What is the arterial supply of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?

Ulnar artery

53

What is the main action of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?

Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit

54

How many lumbricals are there in the hand?

Four, one associated with each finger

55

What do the lumbricals do?

Link the extensor tendons to the flexor tendons

56

What is denervation of the lumbricals the basis of?

The ulnar claw and hand of benediction

57

What is the proximal attachment of the 1st and 2nd lumbrical?

Lateral two tendons of flexor digitorum profundus

58

What kind of muscles are the 1st and 2nd lumbricals?

Unipennate

59

What is the proximal attachment of the 3rd and 4th lumbrical?

Medial three tendons of flexor digitorum profundus

60

What kind of muscles are the 3rd and 4th lumbricals?

Bipennate

61

What is the distal attachment of the lumbricals?

Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd-5th digits

62

What the the innervation of the 1st and 2nd lumbricals?

Median nerve (C8, T1)

63

What is the innervation of the 3rd and 4th lumbricals?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

64

What is the arterial supply of the lumbricals?

Superficial palmar arterial arch

65

What is the main action of the lumbricals?

Flex metacarpophalangeal joints 
Extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd-5th digits

66

Where are the interossei muscles located?

Between the metacarpals

67

What can the interossei muscles be divided into?

Two groups, the dorsal and palmar interossei

68

How many dorsal interossei muscles are there?

4

69

What is the proximal attachment of the dorsal interossei?

Adjacent sides of two metacarpals

70

What kind of muscles are the dorsal interossei?

Bipennate

71

What is the distal attachment of the dorsal interossei?

Bases of proximal phalanges
Extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits

72

What is the innervation of the dorsal interossei?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

73

What is the arterial supply of the dorsal interossei?

Palmar metacarpal arteries 
Dorsal metacarpal arteries

74

What is the main action of the dorsal interossei?

Abduct 2nd-4th digits from axial line 
Act with lumbricals in flexing the metacarpophalangeal joints, and extending the interphalangeal joints

75

Where are the palmar interossei muscles located?

Anteriorly on the hand

76

How many palmar interossei are there?

3

77

What is the proximal attachment of the palmar interossei?

Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th and 5th metacarpal

78

What kind of muscles are the palmar interossei?

Unipennate

79

What are the distal attachment of the palmar interossei muscles?

Bases of proximal phalanges 
Extensor expansions of 2nd, 4th and 5th digits

80

What is the innervation of the palmar interossei?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

81

What is the arterial supply of the palmar interossei?

Palmar metacarpal arteries

82

What is the main action of the palmar interossei?

Adduct 2nd, 4th and 5th digits toward axial line 
Assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints 
Extensor expansions of 2nd-4th joints

83

What is the palmaris brevis?

A small, thin muscle

84

Where is the palmaris brevis found?

Very superficially in the subcutaneous tissue of the hypothenar eminence

85

What is the proximal attachment of the palmaris brevid/

Palmar aponeurosis and flexor retinaculum

86

What is the distal attachment of the palmaris brevis?

The dermis of the skin on the medial margin of the hand

87

What is the innervation of the palmaris brevis?

Ulnar nerve

88

What are the actions of the palmaris brevis?

Wrinkles the skin of the hypothenar eminence and deepens the curvature of the hand, improving grip

89

What shape is the adductor pollicis?

Large, triangular

90

What does the adductor pollicis have?

Two heads, oblique and transverse

91

How is the adductor pollicis involved in forming the deep palmar arch?

The radial artery passes anteriorly through the space between the two heads, forming the arch

92

What is the proximal attachment of the oblique head of the adductor pollicis?

Bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, and adjacent carpals

93

What is the proximal attachment of the transverse head of the adductor pollicis?

Anterior surface of the shaft of the 3rd metacarpal

94

What is the distal attachment of the adductor pollicis?

Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

95

What is the innervation of the adductor pollicis?

Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)

96

What is the arterial supply of the adductor pollicis?

Deep palmar arterial arch

97

What is the main action of the adductor pollicis?

Adducts thumb toward lateral border of palm