Osteology of the Hip Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Osteology of the Hip Deck (88):
1

What shape is the hip bone?

Large, flat

2

What is the hip bone formed by?

Fusion of three primary bones- ilium, ischium and pubis

3

When do the three primary bones of the hips fuse?

At the end of the teenage years

4

What is each of the three primary bones of the hip formed from?

It’s own primary centre of ossification

5

How many secondary centres of ossification appear in the hip bone later?

5

6

How are the three primary hip bones joined at birth?

By hyaline cartilage

7

What separates the three primary bones at puberty?

A Y-shaped triradiate cartilage

8

Where is the triradiate cartilage centred?

In the acetabulum

9

When do the two parts of the ischiopubic rami fuse?

By the 9th year

10

When do the primary hip bones begin to fuse?

Between 15 and 17 years

11

When is fusion of the hip bones complete?

Between 20 and 25 years

12

How do the lines of fusion of primary bones appear in older adults?

There is little or no trace

13

What forms the largest part of the hip bone?

Ilium

14

What does the ilium contribute to?

The superior part of the acetabulum

15

Describe the structure of the ilium?

Thick medial portions 
Thin, wing-like posterolateral portions

16

What are the thick medial portions of the ilium for?

Weight bearing

17

What are the thin, wing like posterolateral portions called?

Alae

18

What are the alae for?

Providing broad surfaces for the flesh attachments of muscles

19

What does the body of the pubis do?

Joins the pubis and ischium to form the acetabulum

20

What does the ilium have anteriorly?

Stout anterior superior and anterior inferior iliac spines

21

What is the purpose of the iliac spines?

Providing attachments for ligaments and tendons of the lower limb muscles

22

What begins at the anterior superior iliac spine?

The iliac crest

23

What is the iliac crest?

The long curved and thickened superior border of the ala of the ilium

24

Where does the iliac crest terminate?

The posterior superior iliac spine

25

What does the iliac crest serve as?

A protective ‘bumper’

26

What is the iliac crest an important site of?

Aponeurotic attachment for thin, sheet-like muscles and deep fascia

27

What is the tubercle of the iliac crest?

A prominence on the external lip of the crest

28

Where does the iliac tubercle lie?

5-6cm posterior to the ASIS

29

What does the posterior inferior iliac spine mark?

The superior end of the greater sciatic notch

30

What does the lateral surface of the ala of the ilium have?

Three rough curved lines- the posterior, anterior and inferior gluteal lines

31

What do the three gluteal lines demarcate?

The proximal attachments of the three large glural muscles

32

What does each ala have medially?

The iliac fossa

33

What is the iliac fossa?

A large, smooth depression

34

What is the purpose of the iliac fossa?

Provides proximal attachment for the iliacus muscle

35

What can happen to the bone forming the superior part of the iliac fossa?

It may become thin and translucent, especially in older women with osteoporosis

36

What is the auricular surface?

An ear-shaped articular area

37

Where is the auricular surface found?

Posteriorly, on the medial aspect of the ilium

38

What is found superior to the auricular surface?

An even rougher iliac tuberosity

39

What is the purpose of the iliac tuberosity?

For synovial and syndesmotic articulation with the reciprocal surfaces of the sacrum at the sarco-iliac joint

40

What does the ischium form?

The posterio-inferior part of the hip bone

41

What does the superior part of the body of the ischium fuse with?

The pubis and the ilium

42

What is formed with the fusion of the superior part of the body of the ischium and the pubis and ilium?

The postero-inferior aspect of the acetebulum

43

What is the ischiorabic ramus?

A bar of bone

44

What forms the ischiopubic ramus?

The joining of the ramus of the ischium with the inferior ramus of the pubis

45

What does the ischiopubic ramus constitute?

The inferiomedial boundary of the obturator foramen

46

What does the posterior border of the ischium form?

The inferior margin of a deep indentation called the greater sciatic notch

47

What shape is the ischial spine?

Large, triangular

48

Where is the ischial spine found?

At the inferior margin of the greater sciatic notch

49

What does the ischial spine provide?

A ligamentous attachment

50

What does the ligamenteous attachment separate?

The greater sciatic notch from the lesser sciatic notch

51

How does the lesser sciatic notch differ from the greater?

It is more inferior, rounded, smaller, and smooth-surfaced

52

What does the lesser sciatic notch serve as?

A trochlea or pulley for a muscle that emerges from the bony pelvis

53

What is the ischial tuberosity?

A rough bony projection

54

Where is the ischial tuberosity found?

At the junction of the inferior end of the body of the ischium and its ramus

55

What is the purpose of the ischial tuberosity?

Bodys weight rests on this when sitting 
Provides proximal, tendinous attachment of posterior thigh muscles

56

What does the pubis form?

The anteromedial part of the hip bone

57

What does the pubis contribute to?

The anterior part of the acetabulum

58

What does the pubis provide?

Proximal attachment for the muscles of the medial thigh

59

What is the pubis divided into?

A flattened, medially placed body, and the superior and inferior rami

60

How do the superior and inferior rami project?

Laterally from the body

61

What does the symphysial surface of the body of the pubis articulate with medially?

The corresponding surface of the body of the contralateral pubis

62

How does the symphysial surface articulate with the contralateral pubis?

By means of the pubic symphysis

63

What forms the pubic crest?

The anterosuperior border of the united bodies and symphysis

64

What does the pubic crest provide?

Attachent for abdominal muscles

65

What are pubic tubercles?

Small projections at the lateral ends of the pubic crest

66

Why are the pubic tubercles important?

As landmarks of the inguinal regions

67

What do the pubic tubercles provide?

Attachment for the main part of the inguinal ligament, and thereby indirect muscle attachments

68

What is the pecten pubis?

A sharp raised edge

69

What forms the pecten pubis?

The posterior margin of the superior ramus of the pubis

70

What does the pecten pubis form?

Part of the pelvic brim

71

What is the obturator foramen?

A large oval or irregularly triangular opening in the hip bone

72

What is the obturator foramen bounded by?

The pubis and the ischium and their rami

73

Is the obturator foramen open or closed?

Closed, apart from a small passageway

74

What is the passageway in the obturator foramen called?

The obturator canal

75

What is the purpose of the obturator canal?

To allow passage of the obturator nerve and vessels

76

What closes the obturator foramen?

The thin, strong obturator membrane

77

What is the advantage of the presence of the foramen?

It minimises bony mass while its closure by the obturator membrane still provides extensive surface area on both sides for fleshy muscle attachment

78

What is the acetabulum?

The large cup-shaped cavity or sock on the lateral aspect of the hip bone

79

What does the acetabulum articulate with?

The head of the femur

80

What does the articulation of the acetabulum and the femur form?

The joint

81

What is the acetabular notch?

Where the margin of the acetabulum is incomplete inferiorly

82

What is the acetabular fossa?

The rough depression in the floor of the acetabulum extending superiorly from the acetabular notch

83

What do the acetabular notch and fossa create?

A deficit in the smooth lunate surface of the acetabulum

84

What is the lunate surface of the acetabulum?

The articular surface receiving the head of the femur

85

How is the isolated hip bone or bony pelvis placed in the anatomical position?

The ASIS and the anterosuperior aspect of the pubis lie in the same coronal plane 
Symphysial surface of the pubis is vertical, parallel to the median plane

86

How does the acetabulum face in the anatomical position?

Inferolaterally, with the acetabular notch directly inferiorly

87

How does the obturator foramen lie in the anatomical position?

Inferiomedial to the acetabulum

88

How does the internal aspect of the body of the pubis face in the anatomical position?

Almost directly superiorly