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Flashcards in bowel elimination Deck (42)
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1

What are hemorrhoids?

when the veins in the anal canal become abnormally distended

2

When is the rectum empty?

Immediatly before and after defecation

3

how much Chyme enters the large intestines daily?

1500 mL

4

how much water is absorbed in the large intestines?

800-1000 mL a day

5

how often does peristalsis take place?

mass sweeps?

every 3-12 minutes

one to 4 times in 24 hours

6

how much food is normally excreted in stool withing 24 hours?

about one third to one half

7

if someone has a heart condition, what should they be concerned about during defacation?

Bearing down too much can decrease blood flood to the atria and ventricles,

called the valasalva maneuver

8

what is an average count of BMs in a day for breast fed infants?

Bottle fed?

After they are one year old?

2-10

1 or 2

1 or 2

9

when does toddler bowel training become possible? when does it usually happen?

18-24 months

30 months

10

how much fluid is needed to facilitate good BM

2000-3000 mL

11

what are some constipating foods?

cheese, lean meat, eggs, pasta

12

what are some foods that have a laxative effect?

fruits and veggies, bran, chocolate, alcohol, coffee

13

what are some gas producing foods?

onions, cabbage, beans, cauliflower

14

what color would you expect to see the stool if a pt was taking aspirin or anticoagulants?

Iron salts?

antacids?

antibiotics?

pink to red to black stools

black

white discoloration or speckling in stool

green-grey color

15

what causes mechanical obstructions?

what are some?

pressure on the intestinal walls

tumors, stenosis, adhesions, hernias, and strictures

16

what causes functional obstructions?

what are some?

inability of the intestinal musculature to move the contents through the bowel

muscular systrophy, Parkinson's, diabetes, and manipulation of the bowel during surgery

17

what is it called when the bowels stop moving because they were manipulated during surgery?

what considerations have to be made?

paralytic ileus

food and fluids are withheld for 24-28 hours

18

what influences the volume of stool?

what is normal?

special considerations?

the amount, type, and nature of the diet

varies

more roughage = more stool

consisant large diarrheal stools suggest problem with in small bowel or proximal colon

small frequent stools with urgeny suggest a disorder of the left colon or rectum

19

what is the normal color for stool?

what can influence this?

infant = yellow to bronw
adult = brown

red meat and spinach = black
absence of bile = white or clay colored
medications
bleeding (high in the tract is black low is fresh blood)
standing too long darkens the stool

20

what is the normal odor of stool?

what can alter this?

pungent

affected by foods that are ingested
pH value (normal is neutral or slightly alkaline)
excessive putrefacation
presence of blood in stool

21

what is the normal consistency of stool?

what can effect this?

soft, semi solid and formed

food and fluid intake, and gastric motility

less time in = more liquid

longer time in = harder

22

what is the normal shape of stool and what can influence this ?

tubular, around 1 inch diameter

a obstruction can produce narrower stool, pencil shaped

rapid peristalisis thins stool

increased time in can result in a hard, marble like mass

23

what are the normal constituents of stool?

what can alter this?

bile, intestinal secretions, epithelial cells, bacteria, inorganic material, seeds, meat fibers, fat

internal bleeding, infetion, inflammation, and other pathological conditions

24

What foods can trigger a false positive for fecal occult blood?

what medications?

What can produce a false negative

red meat, liver, kidneys, fish, tomatoes, cauliflower, horseradish, turnips, melon, bananas, and soybeans.

salicylate of more than 325 mg, steroids, iron, anticoagulants

Vitamin C can produce a false negative even in the presence of bleeding

25

what is a common symptom of pinworms?

perianal itching

26

how should diagnostic tests be scheduled? give an example?

from least invasive to most invasive

fecal occult blood, barium studies, then endoscopic examinations

27

What is the name of a bulk forming laxative?

How does it work?

onset time?

Contraindications?

Metamucil

causes stool to absorb water and swell

within 24 hours

can interfere with calcium and iron and some meds
dont give to peoplewho are bedridden or have intestinal strictures
can be expensive

28

what is the name of a stool softener?

how does it work?

advantage

contraindications"?

Colace

agents with detergent that allow water and fat to penetrate and lubricate stool

Recommended for those who must refrain from straining

lubricant can interfere with fat soluable absorption

29

What is the name of an emollient?

how does it work

advantages

contraindications?

mineral oil

lubricates the intestinal tract and stops colonic absorption of water

effective within 8 hours

can interfere with fat soluable absorbtion and can be aspirated

30

what is the name of a stimulant laxative?

how does it work?

advantages?

contraindications?

Dulcolax

promotes peristalsis by irritating the intestinal mucosa or stimulating nerve endings

works faster than bulking agents

most abused
causes lazy bowel syndrome
can affect vitamin D and calcium absorption
not recommended for elderly
alters electrolyte transport