Flashcards in bowel elimination Deck (42)
What are hemorrhoids?
when the veins in the anal canal become abnormally distended
When is the rectum empty?
Immediatly before and after defecation
how much Chyme enters the large intestines daily?
how much water is absorbed in the large intestines?
800-1000 mL a day
how often does peristalsis take place?
every 3-12 minutes
one to 4 times in 24 hours
how much food is normally excreted in stool withing 24 hours?
about one third to one half
if someone has a heart condition, what should they be concerned about during defacation?
Bearing down too much can decrease blood flood to the atria and ventricles,
called the valasalva maneuver
what is an average count of BMs in a day for breast fed infants?
After they are one year old?
1 or 2
1 or 2
when does toddler bowel training become possible? when does it usually happen?
how much fluid is needed to facilitate good BM
what are some constipating foods?
cheese, lean meat, eggs, pasta
what are some foods that have a laxative effect?
fruits and veggies, bran, chocolate, alcohol, coffee
what are some gas producing foods?
onions, cabbage, beans, cauliflower
what color would you expect to see the stool if a pt was taking aspirin or anticoagulants?
pink to red to black stools
white discoloration or speckling in stool
what causes mechanical obstructions?
what are some?
pressure on the intestinal walls
tumors, stenosis, adhesions, hernias, and strictures
what causes functional obstructions?
what are some?
inability of the intestinal musculature to move the contents through the bowel
muscular systrophy, Parkinson's, diabetes, and manipulation of the bowel during surgery
what is it called when the bowels stop moving because they were manipulated during surgery?
what considerations have to be made?
food and fluids are withheld for 24-28 hours
what influences the volume of stool?
what is normal?
the amount, type, and nature of the diet
more roughage = more stool
consisant large diarrheal stools suggest problem with in small bowel or proximal colon
small frequent stools with urgeny suggest a disorder of the left colon or rectum
what is the normal color for stool?
what can influence this?
infant = yellow to bronw
adult = brown
red meat and spinach = black
absence of bile = white or clay colored
bleeding (high in the tract is black low is fresh blood)
standing too long darkens the stool
what is the normal odor of stool?
what can alter this?
affected by foods that are ingested
pH value (normal is neutral or slightly alkaline)
presence of blood in stool
what is the normal consistency of stool?
what can effect this?
soft, semi solid and formed
food and fluid intake, and gastric motility
less time in = more liquid
longer time in = harder
what is the normal shape of stool and what can influence this ?
tubular, around 1 inch diameter
a obstruction can produce narrower stool, pencil shaped
rapid peristalisis thins stool
increased time in can result in a hard, marble like mass
what are the normal constituents of stool?
what can alter this?
bile, intestinal secretions, epithelial cells, bacteria, inorganic material, seeds, meat fibers, fat
internal bleeding, infetion, inflammation, and other pathological conditions
What foods can trigger a false positive for fecal occult blood?
What can produce a false negative
red meat, liver, kidneys, fish, tomatoes, cauliflower, horseradish, turnips, melon, bananas, and soybeans.
salicylate of more than 325 mg, steroids, iron, anticoagulants
Vitamin C can produce a false negative even in the presence of bleeding
what is a common symptom of pinworms?
how should diagnostic tests be scheduled? give an example?
from least invasive to most invasive
fecal occult blood, barium studies, then endoscopic examinations
What is the name of a bulk forming laxative?
How does it work?
causes stool to absorb water and swell
within 24 hours
can interfere with calcium and iron and some meds
dont give to peoplewho are bedridden or have intestinal strictures
can be expensive
what is the name of a stool softener?
how does it work?
agents with detergent that allow water and fat to penetrate and lubricate stool
Recommended for those who must refrain from straining
lubricant can interfere with fat soluable absorption
What is the name of an emollient?
how does it work
lubricates the intestinal tract and stops colonic absorption of water
effective within 8 hours
can interfere with fat soluable absorbtion and can be aspirated