Flashcards in Comfort Deck (44)
what is the only intervention a pt with pain usually wants?
How is pain classified?
According to the duration, source, mode of transmission, and its etiology
What is acute vs chronic pain?
What is remission vs exacerbation?
What classification of pain is this?
Acute pain is rapid onset, variable intensity pain that is the bodies way of telling you there is tissue damage or disease. After the underlying problem is solved acute pain disappears.
Chronic pain lasts beyond normal healing period often greater than 6 months and interferes with functioning and often causes depression
People with chronic pain experience remission where there is no symptoms and exacerbation where there is symptoms
What type of pain is caused by uncontrolled cancer?
chronic malignant pain
what type of pain is very resistant to treatment ?
chronic non malignant
what are some problems in treating chronic pain?
pts have a hard time describing it because of poor localization
its often perceived as meaningless, causing withdrawal, depression, anger, frustration, and dependency
Care giver bias
What is cutaneous, somatic, and visceral pain?
What classification is this?
Cutaneous is superficial usually involving the skin
Somatic pain is diffuse or scattered and originates in tendons, ligaments, bones, blood vessels, and nerves.
Visceral pain is poorly localized and originates in body organs in thorax, cranium, and abdomen
source of pain
What is guarding?
its a reflex contraction or spasm of the abdominal wall that tries to prevent additional trauma to underlying tissues
What is nociceptive pain?
How is it treated?
somatic, visceral, cutaneous pain
Its normal processing of pain that damages normal tissues
Opiates and synthetics
What is neuropathic pain?
is pain that is caused by injury to or abnormal functioning of peripheral nerves or the CNS
What are some characteristics of neuropathic pain?
burning or stabbing in varying durations
Allodynia - pain that occurs after a normally weak or nonpainfull stimuli
What is pain called that is resistant to therapy?
What is phantom pain?
pain that remains after a body part is removed
What is psychogenic pain?
Pain that doesnt have a identifiable physical source
Does pain always have a pure origin?
no, it often has physical and psychogenic properties
what is referred pain?
pain that can originate in one part of the body but be perceived in an area distant from tits point or origin.
what are some behavioral (voluntary) responses to pain?
moving away from stimuli
grimacing, moaning, crying
protecting the area and refusing to move
speech will slow down or speed up depending on the pain
unpurposeful body movements
What are some physiologic ( involuntary responses to pain) sympathetic responses
increased blood pressure, increased pulse an respiratory rates
muscle tension and rigidity
increased blood glucose
What are involuntary responses when pain is deep and severed (parasympathetic)
Nausea and vomiting
fainting or unconciousness
decreased blood pressure
decreased pulse rate
prostration (lying stretched out on the ground)
rapid and irregular breathing
What are some affective (psychological) responses to pain?
exaggerated weeping and restlessness
if the patient doesnt have an obvious response to pain, does that mean they are not experienceing pain?
what are some factors that affect pain?
meaning of pain ( are they being punished )
communication or cognitive development
what main emotion can exacerbate pain, and what can we do to minimize it?
pts who were taught preoperatively about what to expect post op required less pain medication
how often should you assess for pain?
whenever a person takes vitals
what are some basic methods to assess pain given by McCaffery and Pasero?
patients self report
report of person close to them
physiologic measured signs
what is PQRSTU?
what are some questions you would ask to go with each letter of the anacronym?
Provocative (what were you doing when the pain started?)
Quality ( describe your pain for me)
Region/radiating (where is your pain?)
Severity ( pain scales)
Timing ( onset, frequency, duration)
You ( how does this pain affect you?)
In addition to PQRSTU, what other things are important to assess regarding pain?
concomitant symptoms - symptoms that appear along side the pain
patients expectations for pain relief
Can a childs pain affect them into adulthood?
how early can a child affectively indicate that pain is present?
it can affect their response in adulthood
as early as 2 years
when would you use the wong baker faces scale?
adults and children >3 years old, especially older adults