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Anatomy & Physiology Series > Brain (FINAL) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain (FINAL) Deck (161):
1

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Frontal Lobe

Part of Cerebrum 

  1. Motor control (voluntary motor skills)
  2. Motor speech
  3. Concentration, planning, & problem solving
  4. "Thinking" 

2

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Parietal Lobe

Cerebrum 

  1. Somato-sensory cortex = feeling/touch 
    1. "Feeling" your body
  2. Understanding speech & using words

3

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Occipital Lobe

Cerebrum

  1. Visual cortex = vision
  2. Process of "seeing" an image

4

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Temporal Lobe

Cerebrum

  1. Hearing (pitches)
  2. Recognizing auditory patterns ("what am I hearing?")
  3. Memories

5

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Cerebellum

  • Function: balance, coordination, & motor control
  • "The bell of the ball loves to dance" 

6

The brain stem is composed of what parts?

  1. Medulla oblongata
  2. Pons

7

What are the two parts of the medulla oblongata?

  1. Life support
  2. Decussation of pyramids 

8

The life support function of the brain is found where? 

Medulla oblongata in the brain stem

9

The decussation of pyramids is found where in the brain?

Medulla oblongata in the brain stem

10

The pons is found where on the brain?

The brain stem 

11

The medulla oblongata is found __________ the pons

Below

12

What is the function of the life support function of the medulla oblongata?

Life Support

  • Breathing
  • Heart rate
  • Heart beat
  • Vomitting
  • Coughing

13

What is the function of the decussation of pyramids of the medulla oblongata?

Decussation of Pyramids

  • Cross over nerve tracts
    • Right side of the brain crosses over to the left side of the body
    • Left side of the brain crosses over to the right side of the body 

14

What is the pons?

Pons = "bridge"

  • The pons is a bridge from the lower brain (brain stem) to the upper brain (the higher brain)

15

What are the two functions of the pons?

  1. Bridge between the brain stem (lower brain) and upper brain (higher brain)
  2. Regulates breathing
    1. The pons tells the body how fast, slow, deep, shallow your breathing should be 
    2. More complex breathng 

16

What is another name for the midbrain?

Mesencephalon

17

What is another name for mesencephalan?

Midbrain

18

What are the components of the mesencephalan?

Mesencephalan

  1. Corpora quadrigemina
  2. Cerebral aqueduct
  3. Cerebral pedunc;e

19

What are the components of the midbrain?

Midbrain

  1. Corpora quadrigemina
  2. Cerebral aqueduct
  3. Cerebral peduncle

20

What is the function of the corpora quadrigemina

Corpora Quadrigemina

  1. Involuntary eye reflexes
    1. Dilating and constricting pupils
    2. Blinking
  2. Involuntary ear reflexes
    1. Ringing and muffles
    2. Turning ear to sound (turning and listening) 

21

What is the function of the cerebral aqueduct?

Cerebral aqueduct

  • The function of the cerebral aqueduct is to move/drain cerebrospinal fluid out of the brain 

22

What is the function of the cerebral peduncles?

Cerebral Peduncles

  • Peduncle = tracts (nerve bundles/ fibers)
  • The cerebral peduncle connects the lower brain to the higher brain
    • Carries information from the lower to higher parts of the brain 

23

What is the function of the cerebellum?

Cerebellum

  • Balance, coordination, and motor control
  • "The bell of the ball wants to dance" 

24

What part of the brain is considered the "second brain"

Diencephalon

25

What are the components of the diencephalon?

Diencephalon

  1. Thalamas
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. Epithalamus 

26

What part of the diencephalon is considered the "second brain"?

Thalamus

27

What is the function of the thalamus?

Thalamus

  • "Telephone operator"
  1. Sorter/switchboard/ brain's router
    1. Projection = to send the signal to different places
  2. Senses pain and temperature

28

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

Hypothalamus

  1. Homeostasis
    1. Negative & positive feedback
  2. Drives
    1. Hunger, thirst, sex

29

What is the function of the epithalamus?

Epithalamus?

  1. Contains the pineal body/gland
    1. ​Pineal gland makes the hormone melatonin
  2. Contains choroid plexus
    1. Choroid plexus makes CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) with ependymal cells
    2. Four choroid plexi

30

What part of the brain and area is the choroid plexus?

Diencephalon (second brain) in the epithalamus

31

What is the function of the choroid plexus?

Choroid plexus

  • Makes CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)

32

What type of cells make CSF?

Ependymal cells

33

How many choroid plexi are there?

Four choroid plexi

  • One in each ventricle

34

Where is the CSF made?

Choroid plexus located in the epithalamus

35

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comes from the first two ventricles called the _____________?

Lateral ventricles 

36

The lateral ventricles drain into the _____________.

Third ventricle 

37

The third ventricle drains into the _____________.

Cerebral aqueduct 

38

What is the purpose of the cerebral aqueduct?

The cerebral aqueduct is a "draining tube" 

39

The cerebral aqueduct drains into the ________________.

Fourth ventricle 

40

From the fourth ventricle the CSF flows from what two plexus?

  1. Subarachnoid space
    1. Around the brain and meninges
  2. Central canal
    1. Down the spinal cord

41

From the subarachnoid space the CSF drains to what?

Arachnoid villi

42

What is the function of the arachnoid villi?

Arachnoid Villi

  • The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains out of the arachnoid villi into the bloodstream to make plasma 

43

What part of the brain is considered the "thinking part"?

Cerebrum 

44

45

What is the function of the frontal lobe?

Frontal lobe is part of the cerebrum

  1. Voluntary motor control
  2. Motor speech
    1. Broca's area
  3. "Thinking"
    1. Concentration, planning, problem solving

46

Where is the Broca's area located? 

Frontal lobe of cerebrum (left hemisphere)

 

47

What is the function of Broca's area?

Motor speech 

48

What does the parietal lobe control?

Parietal Lobe

  1. Somato-sensory cortex
    1. Touch/feeling
    2. "Feeling your body"
  2. Wernicke's area
    1. Understanding speech 
    2. Using language correctly

49

Where in the brain is Wernicke's area located?

Parietal lobe of the cerebrum 

50

What is the function of Wernicke's Area?

Wernicke's Area

  1. Understanding speech
  2. Using language correctly 

51

What is the function of the occipital lobe?

Occipital lobe

  1. Visual cortex =  vision
    1. Processes the "seeing" of an image

52

What is the temporal lobe responsible for?

Temporal lobe

  1. Hearing (pitches)
    1. Recognizes auditory patterns to recognize words
    2. "What am I hearing?"
  2. Memories 

53

The anterior cerebral artery supplies blood to what parts of the cerebrum?

  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe

54

The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to what parts of the cerebrum?

  • Frontal lobe
  • Temporal lobe

55

The posterior cerebral artery supplies blood to what parts of the cerebrum?

  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe 

56

Olfactory

 

  • Number: I
  • Origin: olfactory epithelium
  • Foramen: cribiform plate
  • Function: smell
  • Type: sensory

57

Optic 

  • Number: II
  • Origin: retina
  • Foramen: orbital canals
  • Function: vision
  • Type: Sensory

58

Oculomotor

  • Number: III
  • Origin: Midbrain
  • Foramen: superior orbital fissure
  • Function: eye movement (eyelids, eyebrows, "winking")
  • Type: motor

59

Trochlear

  • Number: IV
  • Origin: midbrain
  • Foramen: superior orbital fissure
  • Function: moves eye = superior oblique
  • Type: motor

60

Trigeminal

  • Number: V
  • Origin: face
  • Foramen:
    • Superior orbital fissure
    • Foramen ovale
    • Foramen rotundum
  • Function: jaw, teeth, face bones
  • Type: both

61

Abducens

  • Number: VI
  • Origin: pons
  • Foramen: superior orbital fissure
  • Function: moves eyes = lateral rectus
  • Type: motor

62

Facial

  • Number: VII
  • Origin: pons
  • Foramen: internal acoustic meatus
  • Function: facial expressions and tastes
  • Type: both 

63

Vestibulocochlear

  • Number: VIII
  • Origin: inner ear
  • Foramen: internal acoustic meatus
  • Function: "inner ear" balance and hearing
  • Type: sensory

64

Glossopharygeal 

  • Number: IX
  • Origins: medulla
  • Foramen: juglar foramen
  • Function: back of throat "gag"
  • Type: both 

65

Vagus

  • Number: X
  • Origins: medulla
  • Foramen: juglar foramen
  • Function: internal organs
  • Type: both 

66

Accessory (Spinal)

  • Number: XI
  • Origin: medulla and spinal cord
  • Foramen: foramen magnum and juglar foramen
  • Function: neck muscles
  • Type: motor

67

Hypoglossal

  • Number: XII
  • Origin: medulla
  • Foramen: Hypoglossal canal
  • Function: below tongue
  • Type: motor 

68

What is the meaning of the functional areas of the brain?

Functional Areas of the Brain are not places in the brain but things your brain does 

69

What are the three components of the functional areas of the brain?

  1. Reticular activating system (RAS)
  2. Basal ganglia (nuclei)
  3. Limbic system

70

What does the RAS comprise of?

  • Reticular activating system (RAS) is comprised of "a brunch of stuff"
    • Not a single area of the brain

71

What is the function of RAS?

The function of the reticular activating system (RAS) is to "wake up" the brain and filter consciousness

72

The two functions of RAS are?

  1. "Wake up" the brain
  2. Filter consciousness

73

Where is the location of RAS?

  1. Brainstem
  2. Mesencephalon ("middle brain") 

74

If someone is in a coma what functional area of the brain is turned off?

  • The recticular activating system (RAS) is turned off therefore the brain can't "wake up"

75

How do you wake up in the morning?

  • You wake up in the morning from neurotransmitters that activate the RAS 

76

What does the term "basal" pertain in basal ganglia?

  • Basal = motor (moving) algorithms (series of choices)
    • Sequence of commands 

77

What does the term "ganglia" pertain in basal ganglia?

  • "Ganglia" = comes up with commonds to make "motor" happen 

78

What two pathways does the basal ganglia take? 

  1. Direct pathway
    1. Excites muscles
    2. Turns "on"
  2. Indirect pathway
    1. Relaxes/ inhibits muscles
    2. Turns "off" 

79

What does the direct pathway do in terms of the basal ganglia?

Direct pathway

  1. Excites muscles
  2. Turns "on"

80

What does the indirect pathway do in terms of the basal ganglia?

Indirect Pathway

  1. Relaxes/ inhibits muscles
  2. Turns "off" 

81

What is the function of the basal ganglia?

Function of the Basal Ganglia

  • The basal ganglia "calculates" via direct and indirect pathways of how to move (motor) 

82

In terms of the basal ganglia grabbing a ball is an example of what pathway?

Direct pathway

  • Excites muscles
  • Turns "on" 

83

In terms of the basal ganglia letting go of a ball is an example of what pathway?

Indirect Pathway

  • Relax/ inhibit muscles
  • Turns "off" 

84

What are two common diseases of the basal ganglia? 

  1. Parkinson's Disease
  2. Huntington's Disease

85

What pathway does Parkinson's disease affect in the basal ganglia? 

  • Parkinson's disease stops the direct pathway
  • Ex: Parts of the body want to walk but cannot

86

Huntington's Disease affects what pathway of the basal ganglia?

  • Huntington's disease is due to neurotransmitters constantly going causes damage to the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia
  • "Wrong coding" given to the muscles
  • Dage to the indirect pathway 

87

Which functional areas of the brain is comprised of a system of "on" and "off" switches that dictate motor movement?

Basal ganglia

88

What disease of the basal ganglia arise when the balance of the "on" and "off" switches is damaged?

  1. Parkinson's Disease
    1. Direct pathway ("on") affected
  2. Huntington's Disease
    1. Indirect pathway ("off") affected/damaged

89

What does the limbic system comprise of?

The limbic system comprises of:

  • Emotions
  • Memories
  • "Cravings" (choices)

90

How does the limbic system act as a functional unit?

Memory⇒Emotions⇒"Cravings" (choices)

91

What are the parts of the limbic system?

Parts of the limbic system (working as a unit)

  1. Amgydala (emotions)
  2. Hippocampus (memory) 

92

What is the insula in terms of the limbic system?

Insula 

  • The choices (cravings) you make are based on your emotions from a memory 
  • EX
    • Smoking →Good expereince →Good memory
  • Negative/positive emotional memories →responses ("cravings")

93

What is the ambiguity aversion?

Ambiguity aversion

  • In decision theory and economics, ambiguity aversion (also known as uncertainity aversion) is a preference for known risks over unknown risks

94

How are choices made in the limbic system? 

Choices made in the limbic system affect the body by:

  • Emotions
  • Memories
  • Choices (cravings) 

95

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is part of which system? 

Limbic system

96

What does the ANS have control over?

ANS controls involuntary body organs

97

What two sub-systems is the ANS divided into?

ANS Divided into: 

  1. Sympathetic system
    1. "Fight or flight"
  2. Parasympathetic system
    1. "Rest and digest" 

98

What mental state is someone when in the sympathetic system?

Sympathetic system = "flight or fight"

  • Scared and stressed

99

What type of mental state is a person in the parasympathetic system?

Parasympathetic system = "rest and digest"

  • Sleepy and wants to eat

100

What is the location of the nerves for the sympathetic system?

Location of Sympathetic System Nerves:

  • Thoraco-lumbar system

101

What is the length of the pre-ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic system

Short pre-ganglionic fibers 

 

"Having a short fuse" 

102

What is the length of the post ganglionic fibers of of the sympathetic system?

Long post ganglionic fibers

103

What type of neurotransmitter is used in the sympathetic system between pre and post ganglionic fibers? 

Acetycholine between pre & post

104

What type of neurotransmitter is used between the post ganglionic fiber and the organ for the sympathetic system

Norepinephrine between post & organ 

105

What is another name for the sympathetic system?

Sympathetic system = adrenergic

  • Adrenergic means NE (norepinephrine) is at the organ
  • "Turning on adrenaline" 

106

What type of receptors are in the sympathetic system?

Sympathetic Receptors

  • Alpha
    • Types 1 & 2
  • Beta
    • Types 1 &2

 

1= excite

2= inhibit 

107

What is the location of the nerves for the parasympathetic system?

Location of the parasympathetic nerves:

  • Cranio-sacral system 

108

What is the length of the pre-ganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic system? 

Long pre-ganglionic fibers

 

"Having a long fuse" 

109

What is the length of the post ganglionic fibers for the parasympathetic system? 

Short post ganglionic fibers

110

What type of neurotransmitter is used between the pre and post ganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic system? 

Acetycholine (ACH) between pre and post ganglionic fibers

111

What type of neurotransmitter is used between the post ganglionic fiber and the organ for the parasympathetic system? 

Acetycholine (ACH) between post ganglionic fiber and organ 

112

What is another name for the parasympathetic system? 

Parasympathetic system = cholinergic

  • ​​​ACh at the organ 
  • Turns on the "rest and digest" 

113

What types of receptors are in the parasympathetic system?

Receptors of the Parasympathetic System:

  • Nicotinic = excite organ
  • Muscarnic = inhibit organ 

114

What does it mean when something is an antagonist? 

Antagonist = turns off

115

What does it mean when something is an agonist?

Agonist = turns on 

116

What are the three types of receptors for special senses?

Special Sense Receptors 

  1. Photo-receptors
  2. Mechano-receptors
  3. Chemo-receptors

117

What are photo-receptors?

Photo-receptors

  1. "Light" receptors
  2. Used for sight

118

How does hearing occur? 

Hearing occurs via mechano-receptors

vibration→ear→vestibularcholar nerve→temporal lobe & cerebellum

119

How does sight occur?

Sight occurs via photo-receptors:

light→retina→optic nerve→occipitual lobe

120

What are mechano-receptors?

Mechano-receptors

  • Mechano = vibration
  • Used for hearing 

121

What are chemo-receptors?

Chemo-receptors

  1. Chemo = chemicals
  2. Taste and smell

122

How does taste and smell occur?

Taste and smell occur due to chemo-receptors

Chemicals →nose/tongue→limbic system 

123

What is the function of the cornea?

Cornea

  • Eye's protection
  • Eye's "course focus"
  • Bends the light 

124

What is the function of the aqueous humor?

Aqueous Humor

  • Refracts the light 

125

What is the function of the lens? 

Lens

  • Eye's "fine focus"
  • Bends the light 

126

What is the function of the vitreous humor? 

Vitreous humor

  • Refracts the light 

127

What is the function of the retina?

Retina

  • Has photo-receptors (light receptors)
    • Rods (black, white, gray)
    • Cones (color) 

128

What is the function of the optic nerve?

Optic nerve

  • Takes information from photoreceptors to the brain 

129

What is the function of the occipital lobe for sight?

Occipital Lobe

  • "Sight"
  • Perception of what you are seeing 

130

What is the pathway from light to the occipital lobe for sight? 

Light→cornea→aqueous humor→lens→vitreous humor→

→retina (rods and cones)→

→optic nerve→occipital lobe

131

The retina has what type of photo-receptor?

Rods & Cones

132

What types of things can rods "see"?

Rods can pick up on:

  • Black
  • White
  • Shades of grey 

133

What is the light level for rods?

Rods work in dim and bright light

134

What is the location of rods?

Rods are located in the peripheral of the retina

135

What is acuity?

Acuity is the sharpness of vision

136

What is the acuity of rods?

Rods have low acuity 

137

Rods respond to/ are activated by what?

Rods are activated by motion in the vision's field (temporal)

  • "Seeing a flickering"
  • Knowing  that something is moving 

138

What do the cones of the retina "see"?

Cones see colors (blue, red, green)

139

What light levels do cones work in?

Cones work only in bright light

  • Cones can't work in dim light

140

What is the location of the cones?

Cones are located in the center of the retina (forea)

141

Wat is the acuity of cones?

Cones have high (clear) acuity

  • Detailed acuity 

142

What do cones respond to/ activation?

Cones respond to/ are activated by: 

  • Patterns in the vision field
  • "See what is happening" 

143

"The eyes are the __________ but the brain ________ the image"

"The eyes are the cameras but the brain constructs the image"

144

What is color blindness?

  • The brain assumes that the color is not there
  • There are no cones for that color therefore the brain creats color that the eye (really the cones) detects

145

What is color adaption?

Color Adaption

  • Color adaption is due to nerve fatigue
  • The nerves (photo-receptors) turn off but the brain doesn't turn off
    • The cones get tired and begin to turn off

146

You are seeing yellow dots turn into blue dots. What is this an example of and why?

Color Adaption

  • The cones (R & G) are becoming tired and turning off and the brain recieves this information and improvises 
  • The photo-receptors (R & G cones) shut off and the brain "sees" blue instead of yellow

147

What is (Color) habituation?

(Color) Habituation

  • When the brain ignores the neurons of the photoreceptors
  • The brain turns off

148

Starting from the external ear and ending with the mechano-receptors, list the order of sound.

External ear→Eardrum→Ossicles→Cochlea→

→Fluid in cochlea→Movement of hair cells→

→Mechano-receptors

149

What does the eardrum do?

Eardrum vibrates

150

What is the function of the ossicles?

Ossicles = tiny ear bones

Vibrates

151

What does the cochlea have?

Cochlea has mechano-receptors

152

What is inside the cochlea?

Cochlea has fluid and mechano-receptors

153

Movement of the fluid inside the cochlea moves what type of cell?

Moves hair cells

154

What is the function of hair cells?

Hair Cells

  • The vibrations in the cochlear fluid move the hair cells
  • The movement of the hair cells in turn vibrate the mechano-receptors
  • Movement of the mechano-receptors are interpretted in the temporal lobe of the brain 

155

What is the function of the semi-circular canal?

Function of Semi-Circular Cana

  • Full of fluid for balance
  • Detects motion

156

What does the vestibule contain?

  1. Fluid
  2. Otoliths

157

What is the purpose of fluid in the vestibule?

Vestibule is full of fluid

  • Detects gravity and acceleration (where is up and down)

158

What is the purpose of otoliths in the vestibule?

Otoliths = ear rocks

  • Bends the hair cells to tell what is up and down 

159

What is vertigo?

Vertigo

  • When the brain can't decide what is true about balance
  • The brain can't figure out what is up and what is down 

160

What are the factors for the brain processing motion?

Brain Processing

  1. Vision
  2. Semicircular canals (head position)
  3. Vestibule (ear rocks)
  4. Muscle and joints (proprioreception)

161

What causes car sickness?

Car/Motion Sickness

  • When the brain can't believe the senses because they are sending off mixed messages
  • More common to have problems associated with
    • Semicircular canals (head position)
    • Vestibule (ear rocks)