Cardiac Cycle (FINAL) Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology Series > Cardiac Cycle (FINAL) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Cycle (FINAL) Deck (81):
1

What is happening to the heart when the P-Wave is being recorded? 

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P-Wave

  • Depolarization of atria in response to SA node triggering

2

What is happening to the heart when the PR-Wave is being recorded?

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PR Interval

  • Delay of AV node to allow filling of ventricles 

3

What is happening to the heart when the QRS-Wave is being recorded?

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QRS Complex

  • Depolarization of ventricles, triggers main pumping contractions 

4

What is happening to the heart when the T-Wave is being recorded?

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T-Wave

  • Ventricular repolarization 

5

What is happening to the heart when the ST-Wave is being recorded?

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ST Segment

  • Beginning of ventricle repolarization
  • Should be flat 

6

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Aortic valve opens 

7

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A-V valve closes

8

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Systole

9

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Diastole 

10

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Systole 

11

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Ventricular Volume

12

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Ventricular Pressure

13

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Atrial Pressure

14

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Aortic Pressure

15

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A-V valve opens

16

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Aortic valve closes

17

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Atrial systole

18

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Diastasis

19

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Rapid inflow

20

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Isovolumic relaxation

21

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Aortic valve opens

22

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Ejection

23

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Isovolumic contraction

24

25

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Superior vena cava

26

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Sinoatrial (SA) node 

"Pacemaker"

27

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Internodal pathway

28

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Atrioventricular (AV) node

29

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Atrioventricular (AV) bundle 

(Bundle of His) 

30

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Bundle branches

31

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Purkinje fibers

32

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Right atrium

33

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Left atrium

34

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Purkinje fibers

35

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Interventricular septum

36

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SA Node

37

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Atrial muscle

38

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AV node

39

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Ventricular muscle

40

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Ventricular muscle

41

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Ventricular muscle

42

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Purkinje fibers

43

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Bundle branches

44

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Common bundle

45

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AV node

46

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Atrial muscle

47

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Sinus node

48

What is the purpose of the cardiac cycle?

Purpose of the Cardiac Cycle

  • To fill the ventricles with blood

49

What is meant by "ventricular filling"

Ventricular Filling

  • Blood enters/flows into the ventricles by gravity
  • Fills up the bottom chambers through the open tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) values

50

What is meant by systole of the atria?

Systole of Atria

  • Atria (left & right) contract and squeeze

51

What is the purpose of atrial systole

Purpose of atrial systole

  • Pushes more blood into the ventricles 

52

What is meant by the "LOAD" phase of the cardiac cycle?

LOAD

  1. Blood enters the ventricles via gravity from the open tricuspid and bicuspid valves
  2. Left and right atria contract (atrial systole) 

53

What is meant by systemic circulation?

Systemic Circulation= body circulation

  • Both sides (left and right) are pumping together at the same time
  • The valves are alternating
    • Pulmonary and aortic valves open and close together
    • Tricuspid and bicuspid valves open and close together

54

What type of blood does pulmonary veins have?

Pulmonary veins have oxygenated blood unlike systemic/body veins

55

What type of blood does the pulmonary artery carry?

Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood unlike the systemic/body arteries 

56

What is happening when the ventricles are contracting?

Ventricles contract (right and left)

  • Both the left and right ventricles squeeze 
    • Systole
  • Causes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves to close
    • "Lub" = isovolmetric contraction

57

When are the tricuspid and bicuspid valves closing?

Tricuspid and bicuspid valves close during ventricular contraction

*Both ventricles are forcing the valves to close

58

What is meant by "LUB"?

Lub = isovolumetic contraction

  • Both the right and left ventricles are forcing the tricuspide and bicuspid valves to close

59

When the tricuspid and bicuspid valves contract what is happening to the semilunar valves

Semilunar valves open when tricuspid and bicuspid valves close

60

Where does the blood flow once the semilunar valves are open?

Semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic valves) open

  1. Blood enters the pulmonary and aortic arteries
    1. Pulmonary artery blood goes to lungs
    2. Aortic artery blood goes to the body's organs 

61

What is happening during the SHOOT/Ejecting phase of the cardiac cycle?

Shoot/ Ejecting Phase

  1. Left and right ventricles contract (systole)
  2. Tricuspid and bicuspid valves close 
    1. LUB
  3. Pulmonary & aortic valves are forced open
  4. Blood enters pulmonary and aortic arteries
    1. Pulmonary artery blood goes to lungs
    2. Aortic artery blood goes to body's organs 

62

What is meant by diastole?

Diastole

  • Relaxation and expandation of left and right ventricles

63

What is happening to the semilunar valves during diastole

  • Semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) close to keep blood out
    • DUB

64

Differentiate between lub and dub

  • Lub
    • Closing of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves due to ventricular contraction 
      • Systole
  • Dub
    • Closing of the pulmonary and aortic valves due to ventricular relaxation
      • Diastole 

65

What is the SCORE phase of the cardiac cycle?

Score Phase

  • The right and left ventricles expand and relax
    • Diastole
  • Pulmonary and aortic valves close
    • Dub
  • Tricuspid and bicuspid vavles open 

66

Atrial pressure increase when the atria does what? 

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Atrial pressure increase when the atria contracts/squeezes

67

Ventricle Pressure

The ventricle's graph is larger than the atria due to what two factors?

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Ventricular Pressure

  1. Ventricles have more force
  2. Ventricles are going against gravity 

68

What is the order the the pressurization of the atria and venticles?

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The atria pressurizes first then the venticles 

69

What is happening during aortic pressure?

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Aortic Pressure

  1. The ventricles are squeezing before the valves are open 
    1. Pressure
  2. When the valves are open, this means the pressure is released
  3. The arteries get the full pressure of the blood 

70

Explain ventricular volume

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Ventricular Volume

  • The size of the ventricles 

71

Explain the relationship of ventricular volume in terms of systole and diastole. 

Ventricular Volume = Inverse relationship

  • Systole = contraction of ventricles
    • Ventricular volume goes down
  • Diastole = relaxation of ventricles
    • Ventricular volume goes up 

72

What is the relationship between the aorta and ventricle?

When the aorta contracts  the ventricle expands

73

What is Starling's Law of the Heart?

Starling's Law of the Heart

  • "If you strech the heart muscle, the heart contracts harder." 
    • Rubberband effect
  • Pre-loading/atrial kick 

74

If you stretch the heart with more blood what will happen?

Stretch the heart with more blood

  • The ventricles stretches/atrial kicks
    • Atrial kicks = the atria is squeezing to make the ventricles stretch more
  • Kicks the heart with extra blood 

75

What is atrial kick?

Atrial Kick

  • The atria is squeezing/contracting to make the ventricles stretch more

76

The P Wave correlates to what?

P wave correlates to atrial depolarization

77

During the P wave that is the condition of the SA node?

P Wave = atrial depolarization

SA node is depolarized

78

What is the purpose of the SA node?

SA node = pacemaker

79

The QRS wave correlates to what node?

QRS wave correlates to AV node

80

The T wave correlates to phase during the cardiac cycle?

T wave correlates to diastole/relaxation

81