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Flashcards in BREAST Deck (62)
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1

How common are breast abscesses?
a) 1 in 3
b) 1 in 30
c) 1 in 300
d) 1 in 3000

c) 1 in 300

2

which age group does breast abscesses mostly affect?

child-bearing females

3

what physiological state can predispose to breast abscesses

breastfeeding

4

what is the most common cause and organism of breast abscesses?

bacterial infection (s. aureus) causing collection of pus underneath the skin

5

What breast condition is breast abscess a severe complication of?

Breat mastitis usually of a lactating women

6

What history and examination would indicate breast abscess?

History of mastitis
Fever and general malaise
A painful, swollen lump in the breast, with redness, heat, and swelling of the overlying skin.

7

What is the management of breast abscess after confirmation from history and physical examination?

Urgent refferal:
1)Confirmation of the diagnosis (by ultrasound).
2)Drainage of the abscess (by ultrasound-guided needle aspiration or surgical drainage).
3)Culture of fluid from the abscess (which will be used to guide the choice of antibiotic).

8

name a complication for breast abscesses

can be pre-malignant

9

what antibiotics would you commonly give for
a) Lactating breast mastitis
b) Non lactating breat bastitis
+ analgesia and bath in warm water to relieve pain

a) 10-14 days of flucloxacillin ( cla/erythromycin is alternative)
b) Co Amoxiclav 10-14 days ( Cla/erythromycin + metrionadazole )

10

what antibiotics would you give for a MRSA breast abscess

clindamycin
trimethroprim

11

what proportion of all female cancers is breast carcinoma?
a) 1/100
b) 1/3
c) 1/50
d) 1/10

b) 1/3

12

among which group is breast carcinoma the most common cancer?

non-smokers

13

name 5 risk factors for breast carcinoma

female
Previous breast cancer
age >50
late age for first pregnancy >30
early menarche <13
Late menopauce >51
COCP/HRT
family history
obesity
radiation
Absent breast feeding
Mastitis is severe or recurrent.


14

Which of these is not a genetic mutation/syndrome responsible for breast cancer?
a) BRCA1/2
b) li Fraumeni
c) Cowden's
d) familial hyperlipidaemia
e) TP53 mutation

d) familial hyperlipidaemia

15

what is HER2 ?

proto-oncogene

16

what is an acquired HER2 mutation associated with in terms of breast carcinoma?

worse outcome

17

how are HER2 mutations treated?

herceptin

18

what type of breast carcinoma is most common?

adenocarcinomas - ductal

19

name 4 symptoms that may be present with breast carcinoma

tethering
dippling
ulceration
New palpable mass (lumo)
Discharge from nipple = blood stained
Unilateral breast stize
peau d'orange
Rash around nipple
Eczema = Paget disease
No pain

20

what is the triple assessment for breast cancer?

palpation
imaging (mammography/US/MRI)
needle aspiration cytology

21

which receptor status brings the best prognosis in breast cancer?
a) oestrogen positive, progesterone positive
b) oestrogen positive, progesterone negative
c) oestrogen negative, progesterone negative
c) oestrogen negative, progesterone positive

a) both positive

22

why would radiotherapy be given in breast cancer?

reduce recurrence

23

why would chemo be given in breast cancer?

high risk cases

24

what is tamoxifen?

oesterogen supressor

25

when is tamoxifen used?

oestrogen receptive cancer= it suppresses the receptors and prevent proliferative actions

26

name 2 drugs that can be used in post-menopausal women to reduce circulating oestrogen

anastrozole
letrozole
exemestane

27

which 3 places do breast cancers commonly metastasise

lungs
liver
bone

28

how many diagnosed breast cancer patients have NO evidence of nodal mets?
a) 5%
b) 20%
c) 50%
d) 80%

b) 20%

29

what type of women do ductal papillomas normally affect?
a) young 20s
b) middle aged
c) post-menopausal
d) elderly

b) middle aged

30

is breast ductal papilloma more or less common than fibroadenoma?

less