LOCOMOTOR Flashcards Preview

Y3 CORE CONDITIONS > LOCOMOTOR > Flashcards

Flashcards in LOCOMOTOR Deck (127)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is the prevalence of gout?
a) 1%
b) 5%
c) 20%
d) 50%

a) 1%

2

which gender is most commonly affected by gout

male

3

what are the name of the deposits in gout and what are they made of?

crystalised uric acid (tophi) forming sodium monourate crystals

4

which joint is most commonly affected by gout?

first metatarsalphalyngeal joint

5

what is the cause of primary gout?

diet - chronic hyperuricaemia

6

give 3 causes secondary gout?

alcohol excess
renal impairement
polycythaemia
leukemia
cytotoxic drugs
Chemotherapy = break down of tumour causes increase in uric acid
low dose of aspirin

7

how long do gout attacks normally last?

1 week

8

what 2 symptoms often accompany pain in gout?

swelling
redness

9

give 5 factors which may precipitate an attack of gout

excess alcohol
excess food or starvation
dehydration
starting a diuretic
trauma/surgery
infection

10

what kind of microbiological analysis might you carry out on a patient with gout?

synovial fund microscopy

11

which of these blood markers would NOT be raised in a patient with gout?
a) uric acid
b) creatinine
c) eGFR
d) urea

c) eGFR - would be LOWERED

12

why should allopurinol be started with naproxen at the start of gout treatment?

may cause an attack at the start

13

give a complication of gout

kidney stones
Recurrent and advanced attacks of gout

14

what is the most common joint condition in the UK?

osteoarthritis

15

what is the classic phrase to describe the damage which causes osteoarthritis?

wear and tear

16

what structures are inflamed in osteoarthritis?

whole structure including synovium

17

what familial gene mutation can contribute to the formation of osteoarthritis?

collagen type 2

18

which ethnicity is more likely to get hip and knee osteoarthritis?
a) black
b) caucasian
c) asian
d) native american

c) asian

19

give 4 risk factors for development of osteoarthritis

age
occupation
previous joint injury
obesity
family history
congenital joint dysplasia
osteoporosis

20

at what point in the day is the pain of osteoarthritis worse?

end of day

21

where are bouchard's nodes?

PIPJs

22

where are heberden's nodes?

DIPJs

23

does osteoporosis normally affect just one or multiple joints?

one

24

give an audible sign present on examination of joints with osteoarthritis

crepitus

25

give 2 things that can cause the loss of bone space characteristic of osteoarthritis?

subcondral growths/cysts
osteophytes
infective inflammation

26

give 2 examples of blood markers that could be raised in inflammatory osteoarthritis

ESR
CRP

27

what type of microbiological investigation might you perform if a patient suspected osteoarthritis?

synovial fluid microscopy

28

give 2 types of drug which might be given for the pain in osteoarthritis

Topical NSAIDs
Topical Capsaicin cream for knee and hip
Corticosteriod injection

29

how common is prolapsed disc in the UK?
a) 1-3%
b) 8-10%
c) 25-30%
d) 40-50%

a) 1-3%

30

what is the pathophysiology of a prolapsed disc?

tear in annulus fibrosis (outer ring) of vertebral disc with herniation of the nucleus polposus