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Flashcards in ENT Deck (162)
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1

what body system mediates balance?

vestibular

2

what system regulates gravity, linear and angular acceleration and regulates muscle tone?

vestibular

3

what are the 2 otolith organs?

utricle
saccule

4

how many semicircular canals are there?

3

5

what is smooth pursuit used for?

tracking moving objects

6

what is optokinetic nystagmus?

reflex when tracking objects that lie outside the fovea

7

what is the vestibular-ocular reflex?

stabilised the eye on an object when the head moves

8

where are the main gravity receptors located?

major blood vessels
abdominal viscera

9

what balance disease is characterised by the illusion of movement when there is none?

vertigo

10

what is the onset of being paroxysmal positional vertigo?

sudden, last only seconds

11

does hearing loss accompany BPPV?

no

12

what manoeuvre/test might you perform to diagnose BPPV?

dix-hallpike

13

what manoeuvre night you perform to treat BPPV?

epley's manœuvre

14

what eye problem is characterised by involuntary rhythmic oscillation of the eyes?

nystagmus

15

what is the onset of meniere's disease?

lasts hours
episodi

16

what hearing problem accompanies meniere's?

tinnitus

17

what is vestibular neuronitis?

vertigo that lasts hours after a URTI

18

is there any hearing loss or neurological signs with vestibular neuronitis?

no

19

what is treatment for vestibular neuronitis?

supportive

20

what is presbystasis and what causes it?

balance disorder
related to ageing

21

what is saccades?

normal eye jerk between current and new stimuli

22

what is head shaking nystagmus?

nystagmus following head shaking

23

why might you test calorics when testing vestibular function?

vestibular-ocular reflex is based on calorics (hot/cold sense)

24

who is most commonly affected by epistaxis?

children

25

what causes 85% of all cases of epistaxis?

idiopathic

26

give 3 simple local causes of epistaxis

trauma e.g. nose picking
mucosal irritation
anatomical abnormalities

27

give a tumour cause of epistaxis

nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (benign tumour that bleeds)

28

give 3 associated symptoms of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma - who does it affect?

headache
rhinorrhoea
anosmia
affects young males

29

give 4 pathological systemic causes of epistaxis

bleeding disorders
neoplasms
inflammatory disorders
hypertension

30

give 3 medications that may increase the risk of epistaxis

aspirin
clopidogrel
warfarin