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Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Deck (151)
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1

what percentage of all diabetes sufferers have diabetes type 1?
a) 5%
b) 10%
c) 50%
d) 100%

b) 10%

2

which immune complexes is diabetes type 1 associated with?

HLA

3

what occurs to the pancreas in type one diabetes?

beta cell destruction
absolute insulin deficiency

4

what enzyme is used in diagnostic antibody testing for DMT1?

Glutamate acid dehydrogenase

5

give 2 risk factors for diabetes type 1

family history
other autoimmune conditions

6

what 2 substances will be present in the urine of a patient with DMT1?

ketones
glucose

7

how do DMT1 patients normally first present?

Diabetic ketoacidosis

8

give 2 physiological features of a DKA

ketones used for gluconeogenesis
hyperglycaemia
metabolic acidosis

9

what will be present to smell on the breath of someone with DMT1?

ketones on breath

10

what causes polydipsia/polyuria in DMT1?

osmotic diuresis

11

what diagnostic test would you use to test for DMT1?

HBA1C

12

what would be first line treatment for a DKA and DMT1 in general?

insulin

13

why would you give potassium in treatment for a DKA?

to prevent rebound hypokalaemia in response to hyperkalemia in DKA

14

why don't DMT1 patients get AKI as soon as expected in a DKA?

polyuria is a protective factor for the kidney

15

why does caution have to be exercised in giving fluids in a DKA?

to avoid cerebral overload as brain hydration is maintained

16

in relation to insulin, what two things can cause DMT2?

increased resistance
decreased secretion

17

name 2 drugs that are associated with DMT2

glucocorticoids
thyroxine
olanzepine (antipsychotic can increase weight)
Diazoxide

18

give 4 symptoms of DMT2

polydipsia
polyuria
weight loss
blurred vision/visual disturbances
fatigue

19

name 2 diagnostic tests used for DMT2

fasting glucose
random glucose
HBA1C
Glucose tolerence test

20

what is first line treatment for DMT2?

metformin

21

what time of drug is metformin?

biguanide

22

how does metformin work?

increases insulin sensitivity

23

give 2 side effects of metformin

anorexia (can be good thing in obese patients)
D&V
reduced B12 absorption

24

what is second line treatment for DMT2?

sulfonylureas

25

how do sulphonylureas work?

increase insulin secretion from beta cells

26

give 2 examples of sulphonylureas

gliclazide
glibenclamide
tolbutamide

27

give a side effect of sulfonylureas

weight gain and hypoglycaemia

28

what is third line treatment for diabetes?

thiazolidinedione (glitazone)

29

what does glitazone do?

increases insulin sensitivity

30

who does cushion's syndrome most commonly affect?
a) middle aged women
b) middle aged men
c) old women
d) old men

a) middle aged women