Flashcards in VASCULAR SYSTEM Deck (66)
what gender is more likely to be affected by an AAA?
what percentage of men of 65 have an AAA?
what symptoms might you get with an AAA pre-rupture?
give 2 symptoms of a patient with ruptured AAA?
intense abdo/back pain
what happens to the blood pressure of a patient with AAA?
what kind of shock would a patient with an AAA enter?
give a vascular cause of AAA
give 2 infective causes of AAA
give an extrinsic cause of AAA
give 2 genetic causes of AAA
What are the non pathological risk factors of AAA?
give 2 endocrine/hormone risk factors for AAA
describe an abdominal mass characteristic of AAA
pulsatile and expansile
where do 85% of AAAs lie?
what is an aortic dissection?
blood pools between the media and intima in vessel wall
what is the mortality of an AAA rupture?
if an AAA is more than 5.5cm, what treatment is given?
immediate surgical repair
Either endovascular = reinforce the aorta
Open surgery= graft
give 2 differential diagnoses for AAA
what gender is peripheral vascular disease most common in?
give a vascular cause of peripheral vascular disease
give 2 causes of ischaemia in peripheral vascular disease
Acute compartment syndrome
give 10 symptoms of peripheral vascular disease
Loss of hair on the legs
Loss of sensation
Erectile dysfunction in men
Wasting of muscles
what are the 6 P's of ischaemia in peripheral vascular disease?
give 2 lifestyle risk factors for peripheral vascular disease
give 3 hormone/electrolyte risk factors for peripheral vascular disease
diabetes 1 and 2
give 3 cardiovascular risk factors for peripheral vascular disease
ischaemic heart disease
what are the names for the two locations where peripheral vascular disease can be?
peripheral vascular disease can be
what diagnostic test might you use in a patient with peripheral vascular disease?
What is the fontaine classifcation of chronic limb ischaemia?
stage 1 = asymptomatic
Stage 2a= Intermittent claudication can walk more than 200 meters pain free
Stage 2b= Intermittent claudication = can't walk 200m pain free
Stage 3= Pain during rest and sleep
stage 4 = gangrene or necrosis
what 3 lifestyle recommendations might you give to a patient with peripheral vascular disease?
what drugs might you give in peripheral vascular disease?
why is cilostazol or naftidrofuryl oxolate given in peripheral vascular disease?
vasodilation and anti-coagulant for claudication
How is revasculisation done for PVD patients and what is the risk?
Angioplasty and bypass graft are the two main ways
Can cause compartment syndrome
what percentage of the UK have varicose veins?
give 4 symptoms that a patient may experience with varicose veins
give 4 external signs that may be seen with a patient with varicose veins
visible veins on leg
lipodermatosclerosis (submit fat inflammation) causing hardening, redness and swelling of the lower leg
what causes varicose veins?
give 3 lifestyle risk factors for varicose veins
give a physiological risk factor for varicose veins
in normal vein physiology, how does blood drain from superficial to deep veins?
via perforator veins
how is back flow of blood prevented in normal vein physiology?
what occurs to veins when they become varicosed?
veins become hyperextended and dilated
what occurs to blood in varicose veins?
where would you palpate a patient during a cough impulse test for varicose veins?
how would you perform a tourniquet test?
hold patients leg upwards until blood drains then apply a tourniquet then get them to stand up and see how quickly veins refill
if no refill = SFJ or above valve insufficiency
take off tourniquet and should be sudden gush of refilling
what medical imaging might you suggest to try and diagnoses varicose veins?
suggest non-surgical therapy for varicose veins
Endovenous laser treatment
Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy= scars the vein and forms a seal
suggest surgical therapy for varicose veins
saphenofemoral ligations and stripping
what is the main symptom you would expect in a femoral embolism?
shortness of breath
where is a venous embolism most likely to affect?
what is most likely to cause an arterial femoral embolism?
atherosclerotic or thrombotic debris
give 2 serious consequences of femoral emboli
lower limb ischaemia
is a femoral embolism a medical emergency?
give one serious complication of femoral emboli
what is the treatment for compartment syndrome?
give 3 surgical options for treatment of femoral emboli
fogarty balloon catheter
severely - amputation
give 2 generalised drug treatments for femoral emboli
anti-coagulation (long term)
What are the complications of AAA?
Pressure on surrounding structures
What is the pros and cons of endovascular surgery and open surgery for AAA?
Endovascular= Less change of bleeding, DVT and wount/chest infection but need to have regular scans and the reinforcement graft can move needing surgery again
Open= Greater risk but more stable the graft and long lasting
What si the treatment of acute compartment syndrome causing acute limb ischaemia?
What are the DD of chronic limb ischaemia?
What type of aneurysm is a AAA?
True aneurysm = affects all three layers of the aorta
Initima, media and adeventitia
10% of AAA are symptomatic, what are the symptoms?
Abdo/Back pain with distal embolic event
What are the main 4 risk factors for AAA?