burns Flashcards Preview

562 > burns > Flashcards

Flashcards in burns Deck (46):
1

What do burns prognosis depend on

depth and size
region of body
increased or young age
preexisting degenerative disease
type of burn
early amt of fluid loss and response
early wound care

2

What are the types of burns

Flames
scalding
chemical
electrical

3

Characteristics of a 1st degree burn

only outer layer of epidermis
red, pink, dry
painful
heals in 3-10 days
palliative tx
(sunburn)

4

characteristics of a 2nd degree burn

epidermis and various degrees of dermis
scalding injuries, deep sunburn
moist, red, blistered
painful-sensitive to touch or pinprick (pain sensors in tact)
heals in 7-21 days
requires medical care
scar forms
varying tx

5

What do blisters do

prevent loss of body water and protect underneath the skin

6

What is the criteria to be admitted to a burn unit

more than 20% of the body being burned

7

When do you often see 3rd degree burns

when clothes cath on fire or person is directly exposed to flame

8

Characteristics of a 3rd degree burn

epidermis, dermis and extends into subcutaneous tissue
varies in color, hard, dry, leathery
extensive edema
no pain (nerve endings are damaged)
surrounded by 1st/2nd degree burns
decreased blood supply

9

When are grafts likely

in 3rd degree burns if greater than 1/5 inches

10

characteristics of a 4h degree burn

extends beyond skin and into fat, muscle, bone
black, charred, dry, crisp
painless
amputation typical

11

What are more severe burn injuries

those to the hands, feet, face, genital, inhalation, electrical

12

what is the rule of 9's

describes the extent and percentage of the burn

13

what is the total % for the head

9

14

what is the total % for two arms

18%

15

what is the total % for the trunk

36

16

what % is the perinium

1

17

what % are the two legs

36

18

complications from burns

hemodynamic instability
respiratory dysfunction
hypermetabolic response
organ system dysfunction
sepsis

19

at is hemodynamic instability due to

fluid loss

20

what is burn shock

associated with hemodynamic instability
decreasedcardiac output, increased vascular resistance, impaired blood supply to organs

21

What are you at risk for with hemodynamic instability

vascular coagulation (blood clots)

22

Tx for hemodynamic instability

hydration

23

What causes respiratory dysfunction

smoke inhalation and burned lungs

24

Symptoms of respiratory dysfunction

hoarseness
drooling
inability to manage secretions
rales
stridor
hacking cough
labored or shallow breathing

25

What does respiratory dysfunction appear

24-48 hrs

26

tx for respiratory dysfunction

humidified oxygen
ventilation

27

Cause of hypermetablic response

bruns cause an increase in metabolic and nutritional requirements

28

tx for hypermetabolic response

nutritional support

29

what occurs in renal dysfunction

increased metabolic demands

30

What are neurologic changes due to

hypoxia

31

what musculoskeletal changes occur

scarring contractures

32

what kind of gastric problems occur

vomitting
fecal impaction
ulcers
possible feeding tube

33

What is sepsis

condition where body fighting a severe infection that has spread via the bloodstream in response to the body trying to fight the infection

34

what needs to be a priority in burn tx

pain management

35

What causes emotional trauma

disfigurement
pain
length of recovery

36

what happens to the body after burns

decreased body temp
inflammation
edema fluid and electrolyte imbalance

37

What causes hypovolemic shock

fluid and electrolyte imbalance

38

What does fluid and electrolyte imbalance result in

hypovolemic shock
decreased cardiac output
hypotension
decreased urine output

39

Tx for burns

life saving tx
nutrition
replace fluid
debridement
skin graft

40

OTs role in burns

positioning (focus on head, axilla, and hands)
ADLs
Edu
Splinting
ROM
fitting of pressure garment

41

How to splint in burns

in positions of function rather than comfort

42

what are pressure garments used for

to protect fragile skin
decrease/manage scarring

43

Adherence for pressure garments

needs to be worn when scar is new
should be worn 23 hrs/day
wear for 12-18 mo

44

What is a problem with pressure garments

compliance due to itchy,blisters, swelling, rash, fit

45

Psychological factors after burns

Fear
Pain
Loss of roles
financial concerns
depression

46

What do burns cause

massive loss of body fluids
interferes w/ temp regulation
challenges immune system
causes excessive demands on the metabolic system and bodys normal reparative process