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Flashcards in Sensory disorders Deck (123):
1

What is the ciliary muscle

tissues and muscles tha surround the lens of the eye

2

What are canals of Schlemm

tube shaped passage carrying air, liquids, or semisolid materials

3

What is the cornea

transparent convex membrane hat covers the pupil and iris

4

What is the pupil

dark circular opening at the center of the iris in he eye where light enters the eye

5

What is the lens

focuses light to produce an image on he light sensitie cells of the retina

6

What is the iris

colored part of the eye that consists of muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil

7

What is conjunctiva

delicate mucous membrane that covers the internal part of the eyelid and is attached to the cornea

8

What is the vitreous humor

fluid component of the gel that fills the main cavity of the eye b/t the lens and retina

9

What is the sclera

dense outer coating of the eyeball that forms the white of the eye

10

What is the retina

light sensitive membrane in the back of the eye containing rods and cones that receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic n

11

What is the choroid

brownish membrane b/t the retina and sclera that contain blood vessels nd large pigmented cells

12

What is the macula

small yellowish spot in the middle of the retia that provides the greatest visual acuity and color perception

13

What is the fovea

shallow pit in the center or the retina that is free of blood vessels and has the highest concentration of cells sensitive to color and bright light

14

what is considered legal blindness

20/200

15

What is ambulatory blindness

20/800
loss of visual acuity to the extent that vision can no longer guide ambulation

16

What are retinopathies

visual deficits resulting from primary or secondary retinal disease

17

What are the most common retinopathies

diabetic retinopathy
prematurity
hypertension
atherosclerosis
AIDS

18

Cause of retinopathies

Retinal detachment
Systemic (ischemia, hypoxia, infection, glaucoma)
Neo-vascularization (eye produces additional blood vessels leading to blood leaking in the eye)

19

What do retinopathies casue

Visual loss
visual acuity affecte

20

Prevention/tx of retinopathies

Tx underlying disease
edu
surgical repair or retina
laser surgery to destroy weakened blood vessels

21

What is glaucoma caused by

increase introcular pressure due to an excessive accumulation of aqueous humor

22

What does glaucoma cause damage to

optic n

23

What are the 2 causes of glaucoma

Vascular: increase pressure causes decreased blood flow
Mechanical:structures near optic n opening are affected caused increased pressure on the n axons

24

S&S of glaucoma

Gradual and subtle , harmful or destructive onset
loss of peripheral vision
profress to center of vision field
halo vision
mild eye pain which becomes intense
cornea bulges and is unresponsive to light
can lead to total blindness

25

Prevention for glaucoma
TX

Eye exams, edu

Meds,surgery

26

What are cataracts

progressive clouding of the lens

27

What causes cataracts

changes caused by degeneration related to aging or metabolic abnormalities
congenital cataracts-maternal infection

28

S&S of cataracts

Blurred vision which becomes darker over time

29

Tx for cataracts

surgery

30

What causes macular degeneration

genetic factors ad env exposure

31

S&S of macular degeneration

central vision becomes blurred then lost
depth perception affected
no pain and peripheral vision is not lost

32

TX for macular degeneration

laser and drug tx

33

What are the 2 types of macular degeneration

Wet: blood vessels leak blood and fluid into the macula
Dry: deterioration of macula (less severe)

34

OT for vision

Adpative things (enhance lighting, color code, magnifiers, talking books)

35

What is in the external ear

Auricle
External acoustic meatus
external auditory meatus
Eardrum

36

What is the auricle

part of the external ear tha tprojects outward from head

37

What is the external acoustic meatus

passage that controls and absorbs sound in the ear hat leads to the eardrum

38

What is the external auditory meatus

carries sound in the ear that leads to the eardrum

39

What is the eardrum

a membrane of thin skin and fibrous tissues that vibrates in response to sound waves

40

What is the eustachian tube


bony passage extending from the middle ear to the nasopharynx which has a role in equalizing air pressure on both sides of the eardrum

41

What are the ossicles

3 tiny bones
malleous
incus
stapes

42

What is the malleus (hammer)

outermost of the 3 small bones in the middle ear which transmits sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear

43

What is the incus (anvil)

in the middle ear b/t the maleus and stapes bones

44

What is the stapes (stirrup)

innermost that transmitts vibration to the inner ear

45

What are semicircualr canals

any one of 3 tubes in the inner ear
semicircular in shape
set at right angles to one another that assist in maintaining balance

46

What is the vestibule

middle cavity of the inner ear b/t the cochlea and semicircular canals

47

What does the vestiule do

maintain balance and orientation by monitoring the sensations of movt and position

48

What is the utrculus

special sensory areas in the walls that send impulses to the brain indicating the position of the head

49

What is the sacculus

may aid in determining body orientation but may also have a function in hearing

50

What is the cochlea

spiral structure in ear w/ over 10,000 tin hair cells which move in response to sound waves

51

What is the cochlea divided into

3 fluid filled canals (vestibular, cochlear, tympanic canal)

52

What is the basilar membrane

partition b/t the cochlear canal and tympanic canal

53

What is the organ of corti

embedded in the basilar membrane
hairlike projections that receive sound vibrations from the middle ear and send them on to the brain via the auditory n. which are recognized and interpreted as specific sounds

54

What is loudness and intensity of a noise called

decibel

55

What number decibel is the softest audible to humans

0

56

What decibel is audible breathing

10

57

What decibel is soft whisper

20

58

What decibel is normal convo

60

59

What decibel is music in the car or a vacuum

70

60

What decibel is a concert

100-110

61

What decibel is painful

above 140

62

What decibel will rupture ear drums

150

63

What is tone

sound with a particular quality

64

What is pitch

sounds vibration frequency

65

What happens with a greater frequency

higher pitch

66

What does the max range of human hearing include in frequencies

15-18,000

67

The human ear cant hear what

very low frequencies

68

what is conduction deafness

sound is blocked in the external and middle ear

69

Tx for conduction deafness

hearing aids

70

What is sensorineural deafness

damage to the organ of Corti or auditory n.

71

What is tx for sensorineural deafness

cochlear implant

72

What is otis media

inflammation of infection of the middle ear

73

What causes otis media

allergies
infection
(more common in kids in winter months)

74

S&S for otis media

asymptomatic
usually ear pain
tympanic membrane is red and bulging
fever
nausea

75

TX for otis media

antibiotics
decongestants
tubes

76

What are the functions of the vestibular system

maintain equilibrium/balance
maintain head in upright position and coordination of head/eye movt
where we are in space (w/ visual and prop)
control of mm tone, balance, spatial orientation

77

What does the vestibular system receive info from

vestibular nuclei (pons/medulla)
cerebellum
extraocular cranial n
vestibulocohlear n
vestibular apparatus (semicircular canals, saccule, utricle)

78

Where is the vestibular appartus located

temporal bony structure

79

What does the saccule and utricle do

sense static position and linear acceleration

80

What does the semiciruclar canal do

sense spatial orientation, rotation of head

81

Where are sensory receptors located

in the vestibular apparatus

82

Where is the utricular macula when upright

parallel to the ground

83

Where is the saccular macula when upright

oriented vertically

84

What do the semicircular canals contain

crista
no otoliths

85

What do the utriclar macula and saccular macula contain

hair (cilia) with gelatinous substance containing otoliths

86

What happens in the semicircular canals

cilia of crista are stimulated by movt

87

What do the anterior and posterior canals detect

rotary movt w/in sagittal plane

88

What does the horizontal canal detect

rotary movt around the bodys central axis

89

What is vestibulo-ocular reflex

dolls eye maneuver
when the head is moved to the left the eyes move to the right

90

What does it mean if someone is missing he vestibulo-ocular reflex

lesion to brain stem or TBI

91

What is nystagmus

uncontrolled eye movts

92

When can nystagmus occur w/out vestibular input

viral infections of vestibular system
issues w/ labyrinth, vestibular n or vestibulr nuclei
Lesion in CNS
cerebellar dysfunction (after alcohol)

93

What is post rotary nystagmus

uncontrolled movt of the eye continues as the semmicircular canals have displaced fluid and it takes awhile to return to normal

94

when does post rotary nystagmus occur

after passive spinning

95

what is motion sickness

sensitivity to repeated vertical movt

96

what is motion sickness characterized by

vertigo
nausea
vomitting

97

how to prevent motion sickness

antihistamine prior t movt

98

what is vertigo

false sensation that either the person or world is spinning

99

what occurs w/ vertigo

dizziness

100

what is dizziness

sensation of unsteadiness w/ a feeling of movt w/in the head

101

what may vertigo cause

falls due to false sense of movt

102

how can vertigo occur

acute- labyrinthitis
chronic-damage to c8-vestibulocochlear n

103

what is menieres disease

chronic disorder of hearing and prop in the auditory n

104

what is menieres disease caused by

over accumulation of endolymph w/in the inner ear

105

s&s of meniere's disese

severe vertigo
tinnitus (ear ringing)
unilateral hearing loss

106

prognosis of menieres

meds can reduce severity and preserve hearing but acute vertigo may persist

107

tx for menieres

med
bedrest
surgery
low salt diet

108

what is acoustic neuroma

noncancerous and slow growing tumor that develops on the vestibularcochlear n leading from the inner ear to brain

109

What can acoustic neuroma cause

hearing loss
ringing in your ear
facial numbness
unsteadiness

110

what is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

peripheral vestibular disorder affecting the posterior semicircular canal

111

What causes BPPV

dev of otoliths deposits in posterior semicircular canal

112

What is a common cause of vertigo

BPPV

113

clinical signs of bppv

certain head movts produce vertigo
dizziness
nystagmus

114

how to dx bppv

hallpike dx maneuver (place head in certain posititon, if spinning, positive)

115

tx for bppv

positions to move deposits out of canal
vibration to break up deposits
vestibular therapy

116

who does bppv occur in more

60 and older
tbi
diabetes
cva
parkinsons
viral infection
prior problems with vestibular apparatus

117

characteristics of central dizziness

sudden onset
accompanied by headache
mod nausea
continuous symptoms
symptoms don't go away
no hearing issues
falls to the same side as lesion
sometimes has diplopia
gen weakness/ataxia

118

causes of centrl dizziness

brainstem/cerebellum lesion
acoustic neuroma
drugs
veterbral dissection
CVA
TBI
Trauma

119

characteristics of peripheral dizziness

sudden or slow onset
no headache
sever nausea/vomitting
room or objects seem to move back and forth
symptoms can fluctuate or relieve when still
blurry vision w/ position changes
motion sensitive
not associated w/ weakness

120

causes of peripheral dizziness

BPPV
C8 lesion
again
vestibular neuronitits
drug induced

121

Other causes of dizziness

Vascular insufficiencies (stenosis, occlusions)
cardiac insufficiencies (palpitations/arrhythmia/syncope)
autonomic neuropathy (diabetes)
meds

122

Tx for central dizziness

adl training
AE
Patching one eye for diplopia
home eval
meds
vestibular rehab

123

What is the aqueous humor

transparent fluid that circulates in the eye chamber b/t the back of the cornea and the front of the iris and pupil