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Flashcards in Wellness And Aging Deck (76):
1

What are the ages ranges for old-old

76+

2

What are the concepts of development genetic theories

the process of again is continuous w/ development
development=aging
aging changes are due to genetic programming
genetic influences contribute to longevity of life/illness/age of death etc

3

What is stochastic theory of aging

Aging changes result from an accumulation of random events or damage fro environmental agents or influences (i.e. pollution)
Aging results from conditions which produces mutations in our DNA
Wear and tear leads to accumulated damage to vital parts of the cell leading to death

4

Normal aging is not what

Age specific

5

What are biological changes considered as in the agin population

gradual progressive physiological changes in various systems

6

What do biological changes include

diseases to the elderly such as CHF or respiratory disorders

7

What happens to the musculoskeletal system as you age

Bone mass decreases
loss of muscle mass leading to decreased strength

8

What are two common musculoskeletal disorders

Osteoporosis
Osteoarthritis

9

What is OA

Bone on bone, no cartilage protection

10

What happens with osteoporosis

Many simple activities can cause stress fractures

11

How is posture affected in aging

postural sway (small circular movt of the body while standing) which is associated with more frequent falls

12

What are changes that happen to the axial skeleton

Forward head position
Increased dorsal kyphosis
flattening of the lumbar spine leading to rounded shoulders,protracted scapula, and slightly flexed elbows

13

What do changes in the axial skeleton influence

Balance
overall wellness
decreased reaction time and speed of movt

14

What decreases with age in regards to the musculoskeletal system

balance nd coordination

15

What is presbystasis

The loss of normal stability due to the incremental and age related changes of the inner ear balance system

16

What happens to the cardiovascular system in regards to age

Decreased muscle cells lost
decreased elasticity of heart walls
L ventricular wall increases
Less effective pump so reduce blood flow to organs
max heart rate decreases
electrical conduction may become abnormal

17

What is the increase in the L ventricle due to

inability of the L ventricle to pump blood to body (back up of blood)

18

What causes electrical conduction of the heart to become abnormal

Fibrotic changes in the heart

19

What is arteriosclerosis

Blood vessels become less elastic and thicken

20

what is atherosclerosis

build up of plaque in vessels causing narrowing of vessels

21

What is a major cause of hypertension

atherosclerosis

22

Who is coronary artery disease most common in

men

23

What does coronary artery disease lead to

Angina (chest pain)
Cardiac arrest
MI
Heart failure

24

As new technology develops to save those with MI what do they go on to get

CHF due to damaged muscle

25

What is vascular dementia

Progressive effects of small stroke
May see abrupt onset of cog changes

26

What is the 2nd most common disease and 3rd most common cause of death in the elderly

CVA

27

Why do older adults have an increased risk of cancer

defense mechanisms changing w/ age (body has cancer suppressing genes that are affected with age)
decreased immune response
exposure to env factors
Decreased DNA repair

28

What does decreased muscle strength in the diaphragm lead to

Causes less chest expansion and retention of mucus in the lung resulting in decreased oxygen in the blood

29

What is COPD usually caused by

smoking

30

What is copd associated with

Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema

31

What does COPD lead to

respiratory failure

32

What is prebyopia

general decline in visual acuity

33

What happens to vision as you age

general decline in vision
Loss of subcutaneous fat around the eye and decreased muscle tone leading to sunken in eyes
Poor night vision
blurred vision
color sensitivity
spotty vision

34

What causes blurred vision

decreased corneal transparency

35

what causes poor night vision

degeneration of sclera, pupil, and iris

36

What causes loss of color sensitivity

increase in density and rigidity of the lens

37

Why is reduced glare important in the elderly

They need more light and higher contrast

38

What do retinal changes lead to

spotty vision
narrow the field of vision for an increased blind spot size

39

What are some common age related visual disorders

Cataracts
Glaucoma
Macular degeneration
Slowing of CNS info processing
Diabetic retinopathy

40

What are cataracts

opacity of the lens

41

What is glaucoma

build up of fluid in the eye causing interocular pressure

42

What is age related macular degeneration

painless gradual loss of central vision

43

What can glaucoma lead to if untreated

tunnel vision
blindness

44

What does slowing of CNS info processing lead to

cant react as quickly

45

What is diabetic retinopathy

changes as a result of the disease process of diabetes

46

What is considered the most devastating loss of all sensory systems and why

hearing
social participation is greatly affected and leads to isolation. influences safety and security.

47

What is presycusis

age related hearing loss

48

What is presycusis usually do to

environmental factors

49

what is decreased along with hearing loss

Speech understanding

50

What has been found to occur with hearing loss in older aduts

depression and increase in paranoia

51

What happens to the taste buds as you age

general decrease

52

What does you lose taste for first as you age

Sweet and salty

53

What are taste and smell sensitive to

environmental factors

54

What does the decreased ability to smell lead to

decreased appetite and poor nutrition as food does not taste good anymore

55

What is decreased in the somatosensory system

light touch
pain
temp
position sense
slower nerve conduction
dietary deficiencies
diminished circulation

56

What are elderly noted to have difficulty with

reacting to extreme hot and cold temp

57

What are some changes that occur in the integumentary system as you age

change in skin color
liver spots
loss of subcutaneous fat causing wrinkles and jowls
bone loss in mandible and maxilla causing chin to be shorter
decrease in sweat glands leading to dryer skin
ptosis
gray hair and thinner and finer
nails thicker and yellow

58

What is ptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid

59

what causes nails to be thicker and yellow

decreased circulation

60

What are common problems of the endocrine system in the elderly

Diabetes
hypothyroidism

61

What are NOT common problems of the elderly

Hormonal imbalances except for reduction of thyroxin and insulin

62

What controls metabolic rate

thyroid

63

What happens to the genitourinary system as you age

decrease in bladder control (incontinence or urinary retention)
Sexual changes ((satisfaction remains)
Increase in impotence
Benign prostate hypertrophy
changes related to menopause

64

What does benign prostate hypertrophy cause

blocks flow of urine

65

what do women going through menopause benefit from

estrogen replacement therapy

66

What happens to the nervous system as you age

decrease in cells and overall brain weight
decrease in speed of neuron to neuron transmission

67

What is fluid intelligence

ability to adapt and use new info in reasoning, problem solving and integration

68

what is crystallized intelligence

corresponds to the verbal scales on intelligence tests and reflects the accumulated knowledge and practical skills

69

What happens with age in cognition

lower score in fluid intelligence
speed of processing decreases
problem solving and abstraction decline

70

what might a crystallized intelligence decrease indicate

disease process

71

What does normal aging not usually affect in memory

the earliest stages of memory like primary and short term memory

72

what is secondary or long term memory

contain unlimited amount of info for almost any length of time

73

where must info be processed and transferred from

from primary to secondary memory

74

What kind of recall is more difficult

free recall is more difficult than cued or structured material

75

What is the term now used to describe cognitive changes related to age vs disease

age related cognitive decline

76

What are the age ranges for young-old

55-75