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Flashcards in Respiratory disorders Deck (56):
1

Kinds of upper respiratory tract infections

common cold
sinusitis-sinus infection
croup-viral infection of upper airway
influenza

2

Kinds of lower respiratory tract infections

respiratory syncytial virus (infection of lungs and breathing passages)
Pneumonia (often begins w/ other infections)
Tuberculosis

3

What is aspiration

involves the passage of food or fluid, vomit, drugs, or other foreign material into the trachea and lungs

4

what is aspiration pneumonia

liquid/food inhaled into the lungs (seen w/ troubles w/ gag reflex, stroke)

5

What is respiratory distress syndrome

dev of sudden breathlessness (O2 prevented from going into blood)

6

What usually clears aspiration

cough (increases airway)

7

Clinical manifestations of aspiration

coughing/choking
wheezing
tachycardia and tachypenea (increased hr and breathing)
hypoxia
total cardiac arrest

8

TX for aspiration

Heimlich
dysphagia eval and tx for cva (swallow study, prescribed diet)

9

what is the 3rd leading cause of death in the US

COPD

10

What is COPD

Gradual progressive disorder, defined by chronic airflow limitation

11

What happens in COPD

inflammatory response results in loss of elastic recoil, increased airway resistance, reduced expiratory airflow, to deterioration of pulmonary function as disease progresses

12

Wha might COPD look like

asymptomatic for years till 50-75% of lung function is gone

13

What can COPD result in

respiratory failure as they have increase in CO2

14

What does COPD consist of

emphysema
chronic bronchitis
asthma

15

Characterisitcs of COPD

long hx of tobacco use
chronic cough
chronic sputum production
hx of exposure to dust and chemicals
dyspnea
deconditioning

16

What can COPD lead to

right sided CHF (b/c severe copd causes strain on pulmonary arteries and the R ventricle pumps to pulmonary arteries which goes to lungs)

17

What is the GOLD initiative

dev by WHO to assist w/ risk factor reduction and mngmt of symptoms and exacerbations

18

TX for COPD

symptom mngmt
prevention
slow progression
smoking cessation
meds
breathing techniques
limit exposure to communicable diesases

19

What can ot do for COPD

modify/grade activities
AE
energy conservation
breathing techniques
emotional and psychological support

20

What happens in emphysema

air sacs in the lungs gradually destroyed, causing large air sacs which leads to ir trapping, loss of elastic recoil, hyperinflation, and impaired o2 exchange

21

What are people with emphysema known as

pink puffers (have redder complexion)

22

What causes emhysema

smoking
genetics (for early onset)

23

Clinical manifestations of emphysema

dyspenea
hyperventilation
anorexia
fatigue
clubbed fingers
decreased chest expansion
rapid shallow breathing
barrel chest (due to hyperinflation)

24

TX of emphysema

stop smoking
edu (breathing techniques, diet/nutrition)
meds
psychosocial adjustment
surgery
pulmonary rehab

25

Ots role in emphysema

etach pursed lip breathing
diaphragmatic breathing
energy conservation

26

what is the most common form of COPD

Chronic bronchitis

27

What is chronic bronchitis characterized by

airway resistance and impaired mucocillary clearance

28

What causes chronic bronchitis

smoking
air pollution

29

what is chronic bronchitis defined as

chronic productive cough that lasts for more than 3 months in a year during 2 consecutive years that is not cuased by another respiratory disorder

30

Clinical manifestation of chronic bronchitis

constant productive cough (worse in am)
mucus hypersecretion
prolnged expiration
lung function deterioration

31

What are people with chronic bronchitis known as

blue bloaters (skin has blue tint due to poor oxygenation)

32

Tx for chronic bronchitis

stop smoking
meds
symptom mngmt

33

What is pulmonary edema

build up of fluid in the spaces in the lungs

34

What does pulmonary edema do

fluid collecting in the alveoli and interstitial area reduces the amt of o2, interferes w/ lung expansion, and decreases o2 in the blood

35

what causes pulmonary edema

CHF
damage to lungs

36

Clinical manifestations of pulmonary edema

cough
orthopnea
rales
frothy sputum
labored breathing
tachycardia

37

Treatment for pulmonary edema

tx underlying cause
mechanical ventilation
o2
meds

38

what are rales

bubbling/crackling sound

39

what is orthopenea

difficulty breathing lying down

40

What happens in chest trauma

loss of negative pressure in intrapleural space which allowd lungs to expand

41

Symptoms of chest trauma

atelectasis (incomplete expansion of lung or portion of lung)
dyspenea
cough
chest pain
unequal expansion
hypoxia
anxiety
tachycardia
pallor

42

Tx for chest trauma

surgery
mechanical ventilation

43

What is pulmonary embolism

serious condition-clot, air bubble, or fat particle travels to the right side of the heart causing obstruction

44

What causes pumonary embolism

immobility
tauma to legs
childbirth
CHF
dehydration
cancer

45

Clinical manifestation of pulmonary embolism

transient chest pain
cough
dyspenea
chest pain
tachypnea
hyopxia
low BP
rapid weak pulse
loss of counsciouness

46

Tx for pulmonary embolis

treat underlying cause
o2
mechanical ventilation
surgery
meds
ted hose
embolectomy

47

What should you tell someone about immediatly that your pt tells you that indicates pulmonary embolism

complaining of pain behind their knee

48

What is acute respiratory failure

Inability to maintain oxygenation of blood

49

What is hypoxemia

PaO2

50

What is hypercapnia

PaCO2 > 50 mm HG

51

What causes acute respiratory failure

chronic respiratory conditions
acute disorder
neuromuscular disorder (e.g. GB)
trauma

52

Clinical manifestations of Acute respiratory failure

rapid shallow labored respirations
signs of hypoxia and hypercapnia
headache
tachycardia
lethargy
confusion

53

TX for acute respiratory failure

o2 ventilator

54

What to do w/ OT in respiratory disorders

eval
adaptations
psychosocial adjustment
edu/lifestyle changes
work simplification
energy conservation
relaxation/stress mngmt
home mod
home program
moitor vitals
note signs of distress

55

Sings of distress

Tachypnea
cyanosis
fatigue
decrease in Oxygen saturation levels
length of recover time

56

Manifestations of respiratory disorders

sneezing
coughing
altered breathing patterns (wheezing, stridor-high pitched noise)
Dyspnea
cyanosis
pleural pain (inflammation of parietal pleura)
friction rub (friction of pleural membrane leading to inflammation)
clubbed fingers
changes in arterial blood gases