Flashcards in C1 Cells Deck (48):
nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates
Microscope invented by ? and ? in mid 1600s
Hooke and leeuwenhoek
Problem with electron microscope
limited to "fixed" materials
Three features differentiating bacteria
cell wall, no nucleus, no organelles
Who proposed that all organisms are composed of cells, the basic unit of life?
Mathias Schleden and Theodor Schwann
Proposed "omnis cellula a cellula" or "cells can only arise from preexisting cells"
Showed that life does not spontaneously arise
5 major organelles
nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ER, golgi
Membranes separate the organelles from the ?
ph of the lysosome
mitochondria and chloroplasts were free-living bacteria before being taken up into eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ? which are the site of ?
ribosomes, protein synthesis
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is mostly concerned with ?
The golgi apparatus is integral in modifying, sorting, and packaging ? for exocytosis or use within the cell.
Proteins from rough ER (and lipids from smooth ER)
Long fine filament network consisting of ? (3)
microtubules, actin, intermediate filaments
actin is present in especially large number in ? cells
intermediate filaments function in ?
strengthening the cell mechanically
Model simple eukaryote
Yeast (S. Cerivisiae)
Drosphila (fly), caenorhabditis(worm), mus musculus (mouse), homo sapiens
Benefits of E. Coli as model organism
copes well w/ various conditions, reproduces rapidly, small genomes.
Benefits of Yeast as model organism
single celled, rapid reproduction, only 2.5 times as much DNA as E. Coli
Benefits of Arabidopsis as model organism
small, grows indoors, quick reproduction, small genome
Benefit of Drosophila as model organism
genetic tools allow us to probe development.
Benefits of C. Elegans as model organism
Model for apoptosis (programmed cell death). Unusual degree of regularity.
Genes that control the cell-division cycle
S. Pombe cells with temperature-sensitive ? genes cannot divide at high temperatures
We have over ? different types of cells in our bodies assembled into a variety of tissues
Three types of epithelial cells
absorptive, ciliated, secretory
The brain and spinal cord are composed of a network of ?
where a neuron forms a junction with another neuron (or muscle cell)
red blood cells. have no nucleus or internal membranes. filled with hemoglobin.
white blood cells. protect against infections.
Two types of leucocytes
moves joints by strong and rapid contraction
thin elongated cells present in digestive tract, bladder, arteries and veins
intermediate muscle between skeletal and smooth
cardiac (responsible for heartbeat)
cells entire library of genetic information
Organelles that have their own DNA and reproduce by dividing in two (2)
mitochondria and chloroplasts
site of intracellular digestion
generates and degrades hydrogen peroxide
diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that prey upon other cells
benefits of zebrafish as model organism
transparent for first two weeks of life
Organism that Provided definitive proof that genes are carried on chromosomes.
Organism used in Used in discovery of how cells replicate.