C1 Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C1 Cells Deck (48):
1

Four macromolecules

nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates

2

Microscope invented by ? and ? in mid 1600s

Hooke and leeuwenhoek

3

Problem with electron microscope

limited to "fixed" materials

4

Three features differentiating bacteria

cell wall, no nucleus, no organelles

5

Who proposed that all organisms are composed of cells, the basic unit of life?

Mathias Schleden and Theodor Schwann

6

Proposed "omnis cellula a cellula" or "cells can only arise from preexisting cells"

Virchow

7

Showed that life does not spontaneously arise

Pasteur

8

5 major organelles

nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ER, golgi

9

Membranes separate the organelles from the ?

cytosol

10

ph of the lysosome

5

11

endosymbiotictheory (margulis)

mitochondria and chloroplasts were free-living bacteria before being taken up into eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis

12

Rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ? which are the site of ?

ribosomes, protein synthesis

13

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is mostly concerned with ?

lipid metabolism

14

The golgi apparatus is integral in modifying, sorting, and packaging ? for exocytosis or use within the cell.

Proteins from rough ER (and lipids from smooth ER)

15

Long fine filament network consisting of ? (3)

microtubules, actin, intermediate filaments

16

actin is present in especially large number in ? cells

muscle

17

intermediate filaments function in ?

strengthening the cell mechanically

18

Model Bacteria

E. Coli

19

Model simple eukaryote

Yeast (S. Cerivisiae)

20

Model plant

arabidopsis

21

Model animals 

Drosphila (fly), caenorhabditis(worm), mus musculus (mouse), homo sapiens

22

Benefits of E. Coli as model organism

copes well w/ various conditions, reproduces rapidly, small genomes. 

23

Benefits of Yeast as model organism

single celled, rapid reproduction, only 2.5 times as much DNA as E. Coli

24

Benefits of Arabidopsis as model organism

small, grows indoors, quick reproduction, small genome

25

Benefit of Drosophila as model organism

genetic tools allow us to probe development. 

26

Benefits of C. Elegans as model organism

Model for apoptosis (programmed cell death). Unusual degree of regularity.

27

Genes that control the cell-division cycle

cdc genes

28

S. Pombe cells with temperature-sensitive ? genes cannot divide at high temperatures

cdc2

29

We have over ? different types of cells in our bodies assembled into a variety of tissues

200

30

Three types of epithelial cells

absorptive, ciliated, secretory

31

The brain and spinal cord are composed of a network of ?

neurons

32

synapse

where a neuron forms a junction with another neuron (or muscle cell)

33

Erythrocytes

red blood cells. have no nucleus or internal membranes. filled with hemoglobin.

34

leucocytes

white blood cells. protect against infections.

35

Two types of leucocytes

lymphocytes, macrophages

36

moves joints by strong and rapid contraction

skeletal muscle

37

thin elongated cells present in digestive tract, bladder, arteries and veins

smooth muscle

38

intermediate muscle between skeletal and smooth

cardiac (responsible for heartbeat)

39

cells entire library of genetic information

genome

40

Organelles that have their own DNA and reproduce by dividing in two (2)

mitochondria and chloroplasts

41

site of intracellular digestion

lysosomes

42

generates and degrades hydrogen peroxide

peroxisomes

43

diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that prey upon other cells

protozoa

44

benefits of zebrafish as model organism

transparent for first two weeks of life

45

model vertebrate

zebrafish

46

Organism that Provided definitive proof that genes are carried on chromosomes.

Drosophila

47

Organism used in Used in discovery of how cells replicate.

E. Coli

48

Benefits of mice as model organism

deliberately engineered mutations, almost every gene has counterpart in humans