C14 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C14 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Deck (30):
1

chemiosomotic coupling

uses energy of electrons to make proton gradient

2

Inner membrane of mitochondra is high in ?

protein

3

The components of mitochondra ETC

NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome b-c1, cytochrome oxidase

4

Protons are mumped into the ? of mitochondra during ETC

intermembrane space

5

Four electron carriers in mitochondra ETC

NADH, ubiquinone, cytochrome C, O2

6

Three ATP synthase conformations

loose (binds ADP and P), tights ( makes ATP), open (releases ATP)

7

How many protons required for ATP synthase to make one ATP

4

8

Function of dinitrophenol in ETC

uncouples ETC from ATP synthesis. Allow protons back into matrix. Energy lost as heat.

9

fast twitch muscle

fewer mitochondria, more reliance on stored ATP and glycolysis, generates more force in short burst

10

slow twitch muscle

more mitochondria, better for continuous low force

11

Light reactions of photosynthesis use water to produce ? (3)

ATP, NADPH, O2

12

light is captured by chlorophyll in ? and transferred to ?

antenna complex, reaction center

13

Z scheme

electron excited in photosytem 2 loses energy as it is passed through b6-f complex and then gains energy again in photosystem 1

14

protons are pumped into ? in phtosynthesis ETC

thylakoid lumen

15

oxygen evolving complex

produces protons and oxygen in thylakoid lumen from water

16

electrons are transported from psii to ctc b6f by ?

plastoquinone

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electron carrier that takes electrons from cyt b6f to Psii

plastocyanin

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cyt b6f pumps ? protons per electron pair

two

19

compounds consumed in light dependent reactions

8 photons, 2 water molecules

20

compounds created in light dependent reactions

one 02, two NADPH

21

protons pumped by light dependent reactions

14

22

cyclic photophosphorylation

electrons from ferredoxin are passed to cyt b6f

23

Dark reactions of photosynthesis also called

calvin cycle, c3 pathway, carbon fixation

24

Summary of dark reactions

carboxylation of rubisco, reduction of 3PG to G3P, regeneration of rubisco

25

Substrate required for fixation of one G3P and regeneration of rubisco

3 co2, 3 rubisco, 9 ATP, 6 NADPH

26

Most abundant protein in world

rubisco

27

photorespiration

plants incorporate o2 instead of co2. costly as product must be recycled.

28

c4 plants

avoid photorespiration by increasing co2 concentration

29

c4 pathway summary

mesophyll cell suse PEP carboxylase to make oxaloacetate from co2 and PEP. NADPH reduces oxaloacetate to malate. malate is decarboxylated to provide co2 concentration

30

CAM pathway summary

modification of c4 pathway. stromata open only at night and fix co2. store malate in vacuoles until day. decarboxylate malate to give high co2 concentration