C16 Cell Communication Flashcards Preview

Biol 3310 > C16 Cell Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in C16 Cell Communication Deck (26):
1

Four types of signals

endocrine, paracrine, neuronal, contact-dependent

2

endocrine

secretes hormones into bloodstream

3

paracrine

signal induces changes in nearby cells

4

Steroid hormones are a type of ? receptors

intracellular

5

cortisol pathway

cortisol readily flows into cell, binds to nuclear receptor protein and induces conformation change to activate it. complex moves into nucleus and binds to regulatory region of target gene to activate

6

two typers of molecular switches

signaling by phosphorylation (activates kinase). signaling by GTP-binding protein.

7

Activated G protein subunits

alpha and beta-gamma complex

8

Three types of cell-surface receptors

ion-channel-linked, g-protein-linked, enzyme-linked

9

Nitric oxide

diffusible signalling molecule. Activated NO synthase produces NO from arginine and causes relaxation of smooth muscle

10

G-proteins can activate ? and ? proteins

ion channel and enzymes

11

adenylyl cyclase is activated by a G-protein linked receptor to make ?

cAMP

12

serotonin increases ? in nerve cell

cAMP

13

Fertilization of an egg triggers wave of ? that initiates development

Ca++

14

largest class of enzyme linked receptors

tyrosine kinases

15

tyrosine kinases

signal activates kinase, autophosphorylating each receptor. phosphates become binding sites for other intracellular signaling proteins

16

constitutively active ras mutant cannot hydrolyze GTP causing

continual growth

17

growth stimulating factors

mitogens

18

MAP kinases

ras activated phosphorylation cascade that activates many other kinases. phosphorylates and activates many proteins

19

akt function

suppresses cell death by BAD and inhibits apoptosis by activating Bcl2

20

akt promotes cell growth by activating ?

kinase tor

21

Rapid gene activation pathways

cytokines and tgf-beta

22

cytokine function

activate jak/stat pathway that can rapidly activate gene expresion

23

tgf-beta function

girectly activate SMADs

24

NO pathway summary

ca++ activates no synthase. no synthase makes no from arginine. no diffuses into other cell and triggers guanylyl cyclase to make cGMP which promotes relaxation

25

heart muscle contraction pathway summary

acetylcholine binds to gprotein. activated betagamma complex opens ca++ channel casuing heart contraction. k+ closes with alpha ATP hydrolysis and binding to betagamma

26

glucose production pathway summary

adrenaline binds to gprotein. alpha subunit activates adenylyl cyclase to make cAMP. cAMP activates PKA initiating a phosphorylation cascade ultimately activating glycogen phosphorylase.