Knew Bull Connor would react violently, worst cases of segregation, 10% registered to vote, no black civil servants, banned the NAACP.
Goals for Birmingham
Organised by the SCLC, targetted segregation shopping areas, admin buildings, schools, public places.
1963 - King arrested for marching. Month later, James Bevel SCLC, young people to join in, imprisoned 1300 children attacked/fire hosed children, media attention. John Kennedy, support for the bill to end segregation.
Communists and Birmingham
Embarrassment for America, 1/5 of radio time dedicated to the protest in Soviet Union, American Corruption, soviet superiority.
Significance of Birmingham
SCLC and the authorities negotiated desegregation terms. Protestors released, department store desegregated discrimination in employment ended. Greater sympathy for civil rights, Kennedy’s public commitment to civil rights bill
Problems with Birmingham
Schools/public places not desegregated. 4 months later KKK bombed Sixteenth Street Baptist Church killing 4 young girls. King and SCLC condemned for using young children in danger.
March On Washington
March On Washington, 1963 - NAACP, CORE, SNCC, SCLC organised a march, emancipation proclamation. 20% white, 250,000 people attended, Lincoln memorial.
Significance of Washington
Significance of Washington, Significant white support in the march, media attention to the march. Solidified support for the civil rights legislation
Mississippi Freedom Summer
Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964 - CORE, SNCC, NAACP voter registration in Mississ…. 1962 6.2% could vote lowest. 800 volunteers, many white helped blacks to the vote. KKK and police resisted, 30 homes/37 churches firebombed 80 beatings 30 shootings.
Significance of the Missi…
Breakdown in relationship with President Johnson, realisation that the political system was racist
1965 - Ongoing campaign to register black people to vote. 1% could vote Sheriff likely to use violence. SNCC/SCLC involvement. March to Montgomery 1st attempt tear gas whips, 2nd stopped by King/President Johnson.
Significance of Selma
Highlighted black registration to vote problems. Media attention was drawn increasing support. Cooperation between CORE, SNCC, SCLC. king stopped the march with Johnson, criticisms, extent to trust federal government.