Nation of Islam
Advocated separatism, believed in Black supremacy.
Malcolm X’s Beliefs
Malcolm X, Believed that King and the SNCC/NAACP were taken in the the ‘American Dream’. America founded on slavery/white supremacy.
Political Black Nationalism - Self determination, black should govern themselves
Economic Black Nationalism - Black people should control the economy within their community.
Contradicts King’s non violence break sterotype of weak/defenceless.
Break With Nation of Islam
Elijah Mohammed grew jealous of his fame / Malcolm X embarrassed the Nation of Islam, Malcolm left in 1964.
Organisation of Afro-American Unity
Left the Nation of Islam/created this. Link between struggle against white oppression and the anti colonial struggle in Africa. Organise/reeducate black people.
Assassination of Malcolm X
1965 - Shot 15 times, reports it was Elijah Mohammed.
Significance of Malcolm X
His ability to express the feeling of the black working class, his organisation collapsed but their ideas were key to other groups.
The Black Panther Party (BPP)
1966 - Most radical organisations, all black, prepared to use violent to revolutionarily transform America
Aims of the BPP
Aims of the BPP, To organise the Black Working classes, working on the self defence of black people and economic improvements.
10 point programme
Necessary for the liberation of Black peopleRanging from Economic wealth fare, safety/defence of black people.
Ideology of the BPP
Black nationalists 2 types. Combined the black struggle with the colonialism of other countries. Mao ect. Called for black not to fight the Vietnam war.
‘Patrol the pigs’ Keep the police under surveillance, protect against police brutality. Planned programmes of Free breakfast/healthcare/liberation schools.
Persecution/Decline of BPP
Persecution/Decline of BPP, Government paranoid that a leader might emerge and threaten the government. COINTELPRO involvement. FBI, send forged death threats to leaders to destroy from within. Disagreements from the leaders.
Political/economic achievements of Black Power
Didn’t solve the social/economic problems, offered practical help to blacks living in ghettos and kept the movement in the political agenda.
Organising Northern Blacks
SNCC/BPP were attractive to black people self determination/commitment to addressing the economic problems of the ghettos. Organise high profile campaigns to address the issues.
Black Panther Initiatives
Black Panther Initiatives, Educational/healthcare initatives helped 10,000’s. Sickle cell anaemia, end of the decade 49 BPP clinics across America. Illinois Peoples Free Healthcare Centres treated 2000 first month. Brought illness to national attention, National Sickle.. Control Act ensuring money/funding to research.
Black Identity, Slavery/segregation terrible toll on Black people. Leaders recognised the need for Blacks to be proud of themselves. Malcolm X didn’t want a slave owner surname. Rejection of the term Negros/coloured related to racism/segregation.
Media Portrayal of Black people
Star Trek, highly trained black characters
Black Power had an enormous effect on black culture/society, emphasis on pride and self-help. High profile campaigns drew attention to Senator Stennis who tried to prevent the community projects. Other minority groups took the ideology and integrated it into theirs