To Secure these Rights
1947 - Highlighted the need to change. Recommendations, not achievable due to congress.
Ralph Bunche - American Ambassador to the U.N
William Haist - 1949 Federal Judge
Executive Orders - Truman
Order 9980 - Guaranteed fair employment Practices in the civi service.
Order 10308 - Prevented lending money to segregated housing projects.
Order 9981 - 1948 Desegregating the Army
Truman was Successful
First President to commit himself to civil rights since Lincoln. TSTR showed the scale of inequalities, recommendations fulfilled executive orders
Truman limited achievements
FEPC (fair emplo…) underfunded/lacked support from s. civil servants. Housing initiative failed, houses poorly built decreased housing to blacks . Not comprehensive enough to deal with racism at all levels of American Society.
Smith Vs. Allwright
Smith Vs. Allwright, 1944 - Voting right in Texas, could vote in congressional, not primary, primary determined congressional. NAACP, applied to the whole of America.
Morgan Vs. Virginia
Morgan Vs. Virginia, 1946 - Segregation on interstate bus services. Violated her constitutional rights. NAACP, segregation on the interstate bus service was illegal
De Jure / De Facto
De Jure - Change in Laws
De Facto - Change in Practice
Sweatt Vs. Painter
Sweatt Vs. Painter, 1950 - Texas Law School, segregated, other schools not equal, Supreme court allowed Sweatt to go to the University.
Brown Vs. Board Of Education of Topeka
Brown Vs. Board Of Education of Topeka, 1954 - NAACP, supreme court challenging separate but equal. Impossible separate and equal, segregation in schools illegal. Significant marked start of an end to separate but equal.
White Backlash to Brown
White Backlash to Brown, White Citizens Council to keep segregation/private schools created. Increase in KKK activities, Emmett Till 1955 lynched.
Eisenhower’s Segregation view
De Jure Change incapable of De Facto change. Infuriate Whites to oppose civil rights. Earl Warren appointment ‘The biggest damned-fool mistake I ever made’
Brown II, 1955 - De Jure victory had little De facto change. Desegregation of school should occur with ‘all deliberate speed’. NAACP thought this to be vague.
Significance of Brown
Won a case at the heart of segregation. Warren sympathetic to civil rights. Failed to deliver 1957 only 750 of 6300 south schools desegregated. Stimulates massive resistance KKK, WCC, police judges ect all against deseg.
Campaigning methods changed. Court cases, De Jure change produced little De Facto change.