Eisenhower 1953-61, Position would improve of its own accord, not the governments job to intervene. Reluctance to get involved with little rock. Two civil rights act.
1957 Civil Rights Act
1957 Civil Rights Act, Voting rights of Americans, penalties for those preventing blacks to vote.
1960 Civil Rights Act
1960 Civil Rights Act, Required authorities to record voter registration, increasing black voters by 3%
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy, Sympathetic to Civil Rights, called Coretta King, highly publicised. Slow to use his powers. Little advance, Southern White Congress. 5 black judges to Federal Court. Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity CEEO, March on Washington where he really started the Bill.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson, Civil Rights, the ‘Great Society’ America a fairer plac.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Outlawed the Segregation of any public space, Fair Employment Practices permanent. Ended legal Segregation across the South.
Voting Right Act of 1965
Voting Right Act of 1965, Outlawed Tests preventing people from voting
Civil Right Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act)
Civil Right Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act), Outlawed Discrimination in the selling of houses.
Role of Congress
Role of Congress, Changed : Exposure of violence. Campaigns, support it couldn’t oppose it for longer. Johnson knew how to exploit congress ensuring the bill was passed. 1964 Congressional election South replace by liberal, legacy fo Kennedy
Role of the Supreme Court
Role of the Supreme Court, Eisenhower’s decision to appoint Earl Warren as Chief Justice. Supreme court cases picked apart segregation. Activist were able to use laws to enforce the change.
Conclusion, Supreme Court used its power to to support desegregation, needed support of the President/Congress couldn’t guarantee de facto change from de jure. Necessary to remove desegregation.
Eisenhower Opposition, Rarely took the initiative, reactionary change.
Lyndon Johnson Opposition
Lyndon Johnson Opposition, King criticised him in Vietnam, critical of Kings Chicago Campaign, didn’t support the Poor Peoples Campaign.
Opposition from Congress
Opposition from Congress, Filibusters - where people talked for a long time, tried to destroy the civil rights acts