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History - Equality in the USA > Pre-1945 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pre-1945 Deck (13)
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1
Q

Emancipation Proclamation

A

Declared the freedom of all Slaves in 1862

2
Q

14th Amendment

A

1868 - Gave citizenship to all Americans, rights to former slaves

3
Q

15th Amendment

A

1870 - Gave all citizens voting rights regardless of race

4
Q

Jim Crow Laws

A

1890 - 1910 -Legal Segregation, education transport healthcare and public facilities

5
Q

Voting Rights of Black Americans

A

Grandfather Clause, literacy tests not applied fairly disenfranchising black people.

6
Q

Klu Klux Klan

A

Defender of White Supremacists. Lynching, in 1900 115 lynchings occurred. 1915-1929 Politicians, police, judges were part of the Klan, little justice. ‘Birth of a Nation’ film glorified the Klan, $10m made.

7
Q

Plessy vs. Ferguson

A

1896 - Homer Plessy showed Jim Crow violated the constitution. Segregation violated the 14th amendment. Segregation lawful, equally good. Influential, legal foundation, although Jim Crow enforced across the South.

8
Q

Conditions in the North

A
  • Little Forced segregation
  • North industrial, ‘Great Migration’, 500,000,1 920’s Pay better
  • Black union created ‘Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters’
  • Easier to vote in the North
9
Q

Conclusion

A

Underpaid, Ghetto’s, not slaves anymore

10
Q

2nd World War

A

Over 1.2m black joined, trained in rural South witnessed segregation. Worse equipment training, different vehicles/operations.

11
Q

Fair Employment Practices Commission

A

Executive Order in 1941, forced not to discriminate, threatening of march by Philip Randolph. Black migration to cities, 25% lived in cities in 1940. 1950, 1/3 lived in the North. Showed pressure on Government favour equality.

12
Q

Voting

A

Before War - less than 2%, 1945 - 15% black population. Cities had a huge population, balance of power for voting. Voted William Dawson 1943 and Adam Powell 1945 to congress. William Haist, Federal Judge in 1949.

13
Q

Detroit Riots

A

1943 - 34 people died, racial violence