Written in 1787, adopted in 1788. Rights, duties and structure of government in America.
Bill of rights
Addition to the constitution in 1791 - Sets out freedoms that all Americans should enjoy.
‘Slave states’ in the south and the ‘Free states’ in the north. The north won led, by Abraham Lincoln.
Freedom of all slavery
Abraham Lincoln, leading the North, declared that the freedom of all American slaves in his 1862 Emancipation Proclamation.
Made slavery illegal.
Civil war dates
Give citizenship to all people born in the United States, guaranteeing the rights of people formerly slaves.
Gave all citizens voting rights.
Jim Crow Laws
1890 and 1910 - Legal segregation. Denying blacks access to facilities used by whites. Healthcare, education, transport and public facilities were segregated.
Black voting rights
Southern states prevented blacks voting - Grandfather clauses, Literacy tests.
Good old time Negro
Rich whites used blacks to nurse, care for children, cook/clean houses. Intimate relationship. Inferior race, that are happy to be segregated and serve for whites. Hired people that fit to stereotype.
The Ku Klux Klan
Radical white supremacy group, targeting blacks romantic, prosperous, challenged segregation. Lynched victims. 1900, 115 cases. Policemen, judges, politicians, no justice. Birth of a nation - vulnerable whites against blacks $10m ($220m)
Plessy vs Ferguson
1896 - Court case showing that segregation was unconstitutional. Train ride Louisiana white area, violated 14 amendment everyone equal. Supreme court - separate but equal.
North Conditions for Blacks - Good
Little legally forced segregation. South agriculture, north industrial. WW1 ‘great migration’ 500,000 moved north, economic boom 1920. Pay was better. Easier to vote.
Organised first successful black union - Brotherhood of Sleeping car porters
North Conditions for Blacks - Bad
Huge discrimination and racism. Payed less than whites, forced to live in undesirable neighbourhoods. Ghettos - black population, poor facilities. Economic deprivation.