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Flashcards in Canada Great Depression Deck (25)
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Canadian New Deal

Bennet’s proposal when the election was coming up and his policies were not working. It was an FDR style New Deal that included an Employment and Social Security act and other reform/restoration acts.


Employment and Social Security Act

The “cornerstone” of the New Deal which offered comprehensive unemployment insurance and allied benefits


Farm credits

Another proposal of the New Deal. It was a federally-supported system to make federal loans to farmers.


Federal By Elections

Mid term elections for vacant seats due to things like the death of a member of Parliament. In 1934, Bennet’s Conservative party lost four out of five federal by-elections.


Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act

Another proposal of the New Deal. It was added to help 100,000 farmers in south Saskatchewan restore the fertility of their lands after the Dustbowl and drought by helping them use more efficient farming technology and better cultivation methods


Canadian Wheat Marketing Board

Another proposal of the New Deal. It was set up in July 1935 to regulate the sale of wheat to protect farmers hit by the Depression.


Dominion and Industry Trade

Another proposal of the New Deal. In 1934, Bennet set up a commission under his Minister of Trade and Commerce, H.H. Stevens, to investigate mass purchases by big businesses and the difference between the price they offered to producers and that charged to consumers. Because of this, the Dominion and Trade Industry was born.


Bennet Buggies

A name given to Horse-drawn Ford automobiles, demonstrating that the people of Canada blamed Bennet for the Depression.


Bennet Burghs

A name given to shantytowns where transient and unemployed workers lived, further demonstrating that the Canadians blamed Bennet just as the Americans blamed Hoover.


King or Chaos

Mackenzie King’s election slogan for 1935. He won that election, and Bennet lost.


Social Credit Party

A political party supporting the idea of social credit. The idea was first proposed by Major C.H. Douglas in the 1920s: He believed that the Depression was caused by a lack of purchasing power because there was too little money in circulation; therefore he advocated distribution of money in the form of social credit. The idea was supported by agricultural province Alberta. William Alberhart became the Social Credit Party leader. The party won the 1935 election but the courts limited the power of the provincial government, so it failed.


Credit Unions

Financial cooperatives that operate like local banks, providing loans and credit to participants. Part of the Antigonish movement was the advocation of credit unions, which gave people access to credit that banks and finance houses would not offer. By 1939, every Canadian province had a credit union.


League of Social Reconstruction

group of socialists proposing radical reforms and greater political education. LSR. It had close ties with the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, which advocated the elimination of capitalism. The LSR was founded by FR Underhill, who also helped prepare the statement of CCF principles known as the Regina Manifesto.


Regina Manifesto

The CCF principles. All industries should be nationalized with compensation for owners, welfare measures like hospital treatment and old-age pensions should be provided, and there should be federally organized social planning. The CCF party withered away as prosperity returned.


Union Nationale

Maurice Duplesis united the remnants of the former Quebec Conservative Party to form a new separatist party called the Union Nationale. It advocated legislation to promote small businesses and destroy the power of big businesses, and the regulation of banks and financial institutions. It became more right wing once it won the popular vote in Quebec and tried to ally the clergy against “radical ideas.” It was accused of being fascist and often used corrupt tactics to maintain its support.


Maurice Duplesis

Leader of the Union Nationale. He embraced the ideas of the Action Liberale Nationale, which suggested that Quebec was subject to colonial oppression because it was run by Anglos. Once he became Prime Minister of Quebec, however, he abandoned the reform ideals and became more of a fascist leader.


On to Ottawa Trek

It was an organized protest that included the Regina Riots. The Communist Inspired Relief Camp Workers’ Union organized the On to Ottawa Trek. Over 1000 men left Vancouver from the labor camps to go to Ottawa to demand labor and wages, but the freight trains refused to take them farther than Regina, and the police made it so that only 8 of them could go to Ottawa. Even then, Bennet just berated them as radicals, and when they returned to Regina, there were clashes with police and military.


Rowell Sirois Report

King appointed a Royal Commission to investigate the relationship between the provinces and the national government, first chaired by Newton Rowell and then by Joseph Sirois, but the Commission did not give a report until May 1940 when Canada was at war. The Report recommended the national government to take over provisions that the provinces could not afford and also stated that the federal government should receive more income tax. These measures were gradually implemented after WWII and they strengthened the national government of Canada.


Crown Corporations

organizations set up by the Canadian government in WWII to produce goods and services that the private sector was unable to provide. During WWII, Howe set up Crown Corporations to oversee all production for the war effort. He put successful businessmen and their companies in charge and claimed that Canada could produce anything required to win the war.


Family allowances

government money to parents to help with the cost of raising children. In 1944, the Canadian government introduced family allowances


Why did Bennet change his views on government intervention?

The Great Depression caused Bennet to realize that the economy would not solve its own problems: His policies were not working and the election was approaching, so he proposed an FDR-style New Deal, saying that the capitalist system was broken.


In what ways was the Canada New Deal similar to the US one?

It addressed many of the same issues: For instance, it addressed unemployment, farming issues, and corruption in big businesses. It also would have greatly expanded the role of the national government had its policies been thoroughly enacted, just like the US; however, the Canadian New Deal policies were not fully implemented. Also, just as in the US, many New Deal policies were declared unconstitutional, Bennet blamed like Hoover, Mackenzie King praised like FDR


What alternatives to King's party existed?

The Social Credit party (led by William Alberhart, advocated social credit but was shut down by the courts), the Antigonish movement in Nova Scotia (which was made of small scale producers who relied on others to market and distribute their goods. Because of the Great Depression, they lost control of their businesses and advocated for small producers to have economic ownership and also supported adult education), the CCF (elimination of capitalism and establishment of socialist planning),


How did the Depression end in Canada?

World War II


How did war and GD change the role of Canadian federal government?

Greatly expanded it by providing welfare, jobs, etc.