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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Civil War Deck (92)
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1

What was abolitionism like before 1830s?

Mainly a religious issue with Protestants, Quakers, and civil religion. Northern states, starting with Vermont, gradually abolished it.

2

What were some things to be noted with the Northern attack on slavery pre-1830?

1. Very few slaves in North, 2. gradual process, 3. Many Northern slave owners sold their slaves South, 4. North was still racist.

3

What was gradualism in abolition?

Abolitionists pre-1830 supported gradual emancipation vs. immediate, and wanted financial compensation for slave owners.

4

What was colonization?

Abolitionists pre-1830 believed freed slaves should be returned to Africa, supported by American Colonization Society, which purchased Liberia as base.

5

Was colonization successful? Why/why not?

No because the slave population kept growing, not enough funds, Southerners opposed it, Both N and South opposed to spending money, and African Americans saw themselves as Americans.

6

What was the slavery situation like by 1830? Where were most anti-slavery groups and what did they urge Southerners to do? Where was abolition spreading?

Most anti-slavery groups were in upper South and urged owners to free slaves voluntarily, owners saw slavery as a necessary evil, abolition sentiment was spreading in the North.

7

Who was David Walker?

a free African American who published "Walker's Appeak to the Colored Citizens" that preached violence in response to slavery.

8

Who was William Lloyd Garrison?

Bostonian abolitionist who wanted immediate abolition, published "The Liberator," controversial figure.

9

Why was Garrison controversial?

Critics say him as self-righteous, fans saw him as dedicated, and he was one of the leading abolitionists but his role is sometimes exaggeratied.

10

What was the American Anti-Slavery Society?

A militant anti-slavery group led by Garrison and others that wanted immediate abolition. Its agents spread out to assist free blacks and slaves and made anti-slavery literature and petitioned Congress.

11

Why was the AAS effective? Who were its most effective lecturers?

It used careful planning, organization, and zeal. Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina.

12

Who was Theodore Dwight Weld?

Most effective AAS agent known for establishing a theology school, a NY training school for abolitionists, and publishing anti-slavery literature.

13

Why did abolition win support?

Britian abolished slavery and wrote against slavery, which influenced US, also religious revival with evangelical Protestantism was against slavery.

14

Who/where were some of the most important abolitionists?

Urban areas: NY, New England, Ohio; wealthy, educated leaders, also women and free blacks like Douglass.

15

What was the original view of abolitionists and what is it now?

Originally viewed as elite white victims of the industrial rev, but they actually were varied in background. Also, some were condescending towards blacks.

16

Who was Frederick Douglass?

Most famous/influential black man of his time, an ex-slave who became an abolitionist and wrote anti-slavery literature. He helped recruit blacks for the Union Army and later worked in government.

17

What were abolitionist problems in the North?

Racism and hatred of abolitionists, limited political success (abolitionists' party, Liberty Pary, unpopular), disagreements on strategy (direct action-revolts-vs. winning over South vs. pacifism), and a schism in AAS.

18

What was the Southern response to abolition? Why?

Rejection: Nat Turner revolt killed whites, Virginia State Legistlature's plan for gradual emancipation failed, defended slavery using the Bible, claimed every society needed a "drudge" class, race war, paternalistic view.

19

How did Southerners view abolitionists?

Irresponisble revolutionaries bent on destroying the American public.

20

What action did the South take against abolition?

Excluded anti-slavery literature, limited freedom of speech against slavery, persecute abolitionists with violence, put bounties on prominent abolitionists.

21

What was the situation like by the 1840s?

Both slaveholders and non-slaveholders in the South united against abolition. Abolition therefore had little immediate effect on slaves. However, abolition did increase sectionalism and Northerners feared growing Slave Power. More Northerners opposed slavery even though Liberty Party was unsuccessful.

22

What was the big question when new states applied to the Union and why?

Whether they'd be free or slave. There was 11:11 (1:1) ratio of free to slave states by 1819; neither side wanted to be minority.

23

What was the Missouri Compromise?

Missouri applied for statehood as slave state; North opposed because they would lose balance. Therefore, Missouri admitted as slave state and Maine as free state, and slavery would be allowed below 36 30' line but not above it in the Louisiana Purchase.

24

What caused the tension between Mexico and Texas?

Americans (mostly Southerners with slaves) settled in Texas and part of Mexico, but Mexico freed its slaves and outlawed American immigration; Texans defied this and Mexican government=too weak to fight back.

25

How did President Santa Anna recognize Texan independence?

Texans declared independence and fought Santa Anna and army; Texans defeated and Jackson sent no help, but Southerners rushed to Texas' aid and defeated Mexicans at Battle of San Jacinta. Santa Anna captured; admitted Texas independence.

26

Why was Texas joining the Union a hot topic?

It was so large that Northerners feared it would lead to slavery expansion because five new states could emerge, giving South power. Jackson and Buren shelved the issue.

27

Why/when did Texas become a state?

1844 election, Henry Clay vs. James Polk. Polk promised to annex Texas and Oregon and was elected, Whig President Tyler supported that. Texas admitted 1845.

28

Did President Polk favor expansion? Why was this an issue?

Yes: He wanted California and New Mexico; manifest destiny was motivation for expansion for many; Northerners saw it as hidden attempt to expand slavery.

29

Why was Mexico on bad terms with the US?

US took Texas, disputed boundaries between Texas and Mexico, Polk wanted more expansion, but Mexican governmnet was too unstable for negotiation.

30

How did Democrat and US President Polk start the Mexican War?

He sent troops to a disputed border to trigger a conflict; then used conflict as excuse to ask Congress to declare war, which was supported by South and West (North saw the War as Southern aggression).