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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Civil War Deck (39)
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1

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Proposed by Douglas. Repealed Missouri Compromise for popular sovereignty and divided Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska.`

2

Whig Party

Collapsed in 1850s because it didn't respond to nativist concerns and wanted Catholic immigrant votes, upsetting normal Whig voters. Also Kansas-Nebraska act divided N from S Whigs.

3

Nativism

Suspicion of immigrants. Protestant Americans were suspicious of the Irish and German Catholic immigrants.

4

Know Nothing Party

Always answered questions with "I know nothing." Pledged to vote for only native-born Protestants, wanted restrictions on immigration. AKA the American Party, declined because nativism declined and it failed to deliver on promises.

5

Republican Party

Hard to define. Anti-slave power, morally against slavery but not pro-equality. Party of Lincoln.

6

Lawrence, Kansas

Site of a raid: Pro-slavery posse burned some buildings in attempt to arrest free-state leaders; Northern journalists reported dozens of fatalities but none actually happened. Sparked violence by John Brown and was part of Bleeding Kansas.

7

Pottawatomie Creek

John Brown and sons murdered pro-slavery settlers at Pott. Creek; Northern journalists falsely claimed self-defense; Brown became a hero. Sparked more killings and "Bleeding Kansas"

8

Preston Brooks

A congressman who attacked Senator Charles Butler by beating him with a cane, "Bleeding Sumner" was evidence to North of Slave Power silencing free speech. Brooks became a Southern hero.

9

Charles Sumner

Senator who spoke against Southern Senator Butler and was beaten by Brooks. He became a northern martyr.

10

John C. Fremont

Republican candidate 1856 election. Ex Know Nothing and Southerner. Platform was prohibiting polygamy and slavery in the territories.

11

James Buchanan

Democrat president 1856 who was very passive: was willing to accept Supreme Court's decision on Dred Scott, helped fragment the Democrat party, enraged Northern Democrats, generally failure. Orignially good candidate because Northener w pro-South sympathies. Platform=pro-pop. sov.

12

Dred Scott

Black slave who traveled with his master from Missouri to Illinois and Wisconsin, sued for freedom because he had traveled to free state/territory; Supreme Court decided blacks could never be citizens, Scott was not free, and Missouri Compromise was illegal. Dred Scott decision enraged Northerners; saw it as slave power. Scott was later set free.

13

John Brown

"Rabid" abolitionist who killed 5 pro-slavers at Pott. Creek. Also conducted raid to capture federal arsenal and arm slaves but surrendered and was executed.

14

Democratic Party

Won 1856 election with Buchanan. Later had major division between N and S which weakened party. Typically pro-pop sov. and pro-Compromise 1850.

15

Lecompton Constitution

Constitutional convention in KS drafted pro-slavery constitution in Lecompton; free-staters did not vote against it because they thought it was rigged. Buchanan accepted it, enraging Northerners; others attacked it. Revoting=rejected, free constitution written.

16

Abraham Lincoln

Born in Kentucky, lived in Illinois. Not an abolitionist but did not want slavery's expansion. Very deliberate. Republican candidate against Douglas, won presidency 1860.

17

Lincoln-Douglas debates

Lincoln and Douglas met for open-air debates for Illinois senator. Debates were about slavery + slavery expansion and race. Lincoln=free soil, Douglas=popular sov. Both were more moderate.

18

Freeport Doctrine

Opinion that voters in a territory could exclude slavery by refusing to enact laws that gave legal protection to slaveholders, effectively invalidating Dred Scott ruling. Douglas' support for this alienated him from Southerners.

19

Harpers Ferry

The location of the federal arsenal in Maryland which John Brown raided.

20

John Breckinridge

Vice president of Kentucky who was nominated by the Southern Democrats to run in the 1860 election. Southern Democrats were separate from N Dems. S Dems' platform=federal government should protect slavery in the territories. Breck. won 11/15 slave states but lost to Lincoln.

21

Constitutional Unionist Party

A new party that presented challenge for presidency. Mainly ex-Whigs w/ strength in upper South. Nominated John Bell for president. Platform was to remove slavery from the question entirely. Did not win.

22

South Carolina

First state to secede from the Union. Also the location of Fort Sumter.

23

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederacy. He had been educated at West Point, served in Mexican War, was Secretary of War. Was pro-South but not a fire-eater. Asked for Confederacy to be left alone.

24

Crittenden Compromise

Kentucky Unionist John Crittenden proposed it to try to compromise with the South: Missouri Comp. be extended to Pacific following 36 30 line, amendment would be added to guarantee no interference with slavery where it already was, Congress forbidden to abolish slavery in DC.

25

Slave Power

Northern notion of a conspiracy that Southerners were plotting to expand slavery.

26

Potato famine

Irish potato crop was killed by fungus, creating famine, resulting in Irish immigration to U.S.

27

Polygamy

Practice of having more than one wife, practiced by Mormons in Utah.

28

Battleground state

A state, usually evenly politically divided, whose voters might well determine an election's outcome.

29

Inaugural address

A president's first speech, made immediately after they have been sworn in as president.

30

Arsenal

Place where military supplies are stored or made.