Flashcards in Ch. 1-3 Civil War Deck (75)
In what ways was the "Great Experiment" successful prior to the Civil War?
Rapid expansion, high living standards and good economy, national pride in political system, Americans thought of themselves as most civilized and fortunate nation.
In what ways was the Great Experiment unsuccessful?
Racial inequality/slavery, loss of Native American land.
Should the Civil War really be called a civil war?
No, because a traditional civil war is when two opposing parties fight to seize the government, but the South just wanted independence.
In what ways might the Civil War be irrepressible?
Characters of South and North were very different, the North and South were incredibly divided on various issues (states' rights, tariffs, slavery), North was progressing rapidly in industrialization while South was not.
In what ways was the Civil War possibly avoidable?
North and South were very similar still in legal system, religion, political culture, pride, and both still had racism.
Was the South to blame for the Civil War?
Yes, because Southern politicians were the ones who tried to secede from the Union even though they were likely to lose the war, and the South fired the first shots at Fort Sumter.
How did the US population change in the 19th century?
It grew rapidly because of high living standards (therefore more children), immigration to North, and the average American lived longer.
What was the cult of domesticity?
The idea that a woman's place was at home, not out in the workplace.
What was the status of women in the 19th century?
No political rights (cult of domesticity), only 25% of women worked outside home before marriage, 5% married women had jobs, women often went to church and were entrusted with raising moral children.
How did women help cultivate anti-slavery notions?
Since women were in charge of raising children morally, they often raised them to oppose slavery.
What are two views of the cult of domesticity?
Some say it was a setback for women, others say it gave them power within the home because of their responsibility raising children.
How did new technology in 19th century impact Americans?
Agriculture improved with crop rotation and fertilizer, industrialization (textiles, coal, steel) was prevalent in North, and railroads. The Industrial Rev sped up everything, including people's ideas of change. Mostly impacted North expect for cotton gin.
How were slavery and cotton linked?
Cotton gin rekindled need for slavery, economics outweighed morals for the South, slavery was easiest way to maximize profits. Slavery may have died out if cotton didn't boom.
How harsh was American slavery?
Slave codes emphasized that slaves were property; American slavery was very harsh: no rights, no recognition of marriage.
What is the benign vs. harsh view?
Benign: parental view of slavery, better than northern factory workers. Harsh: brutal view, no protection or rights.
What was slavery like in Latin America?
Slaves had more legal protection due to Catholicism, but their rights were seldom enforced; enslaved in N. America had slightly better lives.
How did enslaved people adapt to slavery?
Family units, music and folktales created unique culture, unique black religion was a mix of Christianity and African practices.
What were some historical views of how enslaved adapted to slavery?
Some believed enslaved became mentally conditioned as a result of slavery. Others said they didn't because they had their own time away from white culture.
How much resistance was there to slavery?
A lot: In the North, abolition brought resistance, slave revolts (Nat Turner), daily resistance (fake sickness, injured themselves, worked slowly).
How did the benign and harsh views relate to resistance to slavery?
Benign said that the lack of slave revolts meant slavery wasn't so bad because of Christian morality and paternalism, harsh said that slaveholders had unlimited power and were abusive.
What was the process of becoming a state?
First, be a territory w/ territorial government, then at 60k population can submit constitution to Congress
What was suffrage like by 1820? Who took credit for that?
Near universal white manhood suffrage, Andrew Jackson claimed to represent the common man but reaped benefits from democracy.
What was the second party system and who was the catalyst behind it?
The period from 1830s to 1850s when the two main parties were Democrats and Whigs.
Which party supported Jackson and which didn't?
Democrats were for him, Whigs against him.
What were the political parties made up of?
An assortment of state parties that nominated presidential candidates and devised platforms.
What is a political platform?
The publically declared intentions and principles of a political party.
What did Democrats favor?
Less power in national government, states' rights, westward expansion, lower tariffs. Democrats were mostly Southerners, Westerners, and some Irish Catholic Northerners.
What did Whigs favor?
Government intervention and programs, higher tariffs, abolition, railroad building.
What were political campaigns like?
They were important for high voter turnouts and were treated like competitive sporting events, but candidates rarely participated in campaigns- let supporters campaign for them. Frequent state elections also raised morale.