Flashcards in Ch. 5 IDs Deck (29)
a readiness to go out and fight; a desire to take up arms against the British, the very peak of patriotic sentiment. This sentiment presented itself in many colonists but wore out as the war dragged on.
Second Continental Congress
Congress convened in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord in May 1775. Most delegates were still in favor of resolution over revolution at this time. The Congress was split into 2 factions: the reconciliationists, led by Dickinson, and the revolutionaries, who wanted a declaration of independence. After a while, though, as the revolt picked up speed, the delegates leaned towards revolution.
Head of the moderate faction of the 2nd Continental Congress. He wanted to reconcile British relations and urged the writing of “Declaration for the Causes for Taking up Arms” in hopes that the British would not be enraged by the presence of American militia. He also created the Olive Branch petition to persuade Britain to come to an understanding with the colonists, but George III ignored it. Britain was already prepping for war.
A wealthy Virginia planter who was named commander in chief of the Continental Army for two reasons: 1: His experience, because he had fought in the 7 Years War, and 2: His southern origin could persuade the southern colonies that it wasn’t just a New Englander’s war. His decisions ultimately allowed the patriots to win.
King of England during the American Revolution
The last royal governor of Virginia who issued a proclamation that all black slaves who were willing to bear arms would be freed if they fought with him against the American colonists. The few slaves who did join to become part of his Ethiopian Regiment were defeated in a battle against the Virginia militia. Dunmore sailed away in 1776.
Author of a pamphlet titled, “Common Sense” that became an instant bestseller and urged Americans towards independence. He also penned a paper called Crisis (these are the times that try men’s souls, sunshine patriot will shrink from service, etc.)
Author of the Declaration of Independence, plantation owner of Monticello in Virginia, who believed that the cause would succeed only if Americans acted with a clear and noble purpose and wanted to establish a government based on law and human reason.
Lord George Germain
He became the American Secretary in 1775 and helped direct the British war effort with the King. He was skilled in planning with inefficient bureaucracy and planned for the campaign of 1776, which at the time was the largest land/sea offensive in the west. His plan included concentrating troops in the Loyalist NYC port, using the surrounding countryside for food, and relying on Loyalists to help reinstitute royal government. He knew that to win the war, the American will had to be crushed.
The German soldiers that the British hired as extra man power to help them in the war effort.
A high-ranking British general ordered by the King to join General Gage in fighting the colonists. He urged Gage to take an offensive stance against the colonists. He was in charge of the assault against the rebels at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Although the British won, it was a costly victory. He later replaced Gage as commander in chief of the army and launched a somewhat successful invasion of New York City. He was viewed as too timid and was later replaced by General Clinton.
William Howe’s brother, who was put in charge of the naval flotilla that transported British troops to the colonies. Lord Admiral Howe made a mistake in the New York City invasion by not moving his ships to the East River, which would have cut off Washington’s escape route.
Declaration of Independence
A document written by Thomas Jefferson and edited by the Congress that explained why the Americans desired independence, including a list of grievances against Britain and also created a long-term vision of a government was based on law and human reason that would work for the safety, liberty, and happiness of all citizens.
A battle with a high number of casualties that represented the beginning of the end to the Iroquois nation. Colonial militiamen under Hermiker in the Mohawk Valley fought against the allied British and Indians, and he lost about half of his men. Afterwards, the Iroquois tribes began fighting amongst themselves.
The British idea for winning the war was to conquer the South, starting with Georgia, by employing loyalists (who were supposedly more plentiful in the South) to join the war effort.
The patriots were losing the war and their spirit, so Washington made a bold move: He crossed the Delaware River with his troops to attack the British outposts in Trenton, New Jersey. His army defeated the Hessians there, as they were still drunk from Christmas festivities: almost 1000 Hessians were captured, and only 400 escaped. The battle at Trenton demonstrated that the British had made a mistake in underestimating the rebels.
Colonists who wanted American independence
Comte de Vergennes
The protege of France’s foreign minister, the Duc de Choiseul. Vergennes did not support Enlightenment ideals or republicanism but hoped to see England defeated in the Revolutionary War because he desired their humiliation. He helped form a private trading company, Rodrigue Hortalez and Co., to bring war materials to the rebels and was also responsible for convincing the Spanish to join the French in making it possible for the Americans to purchase such materials by loaning money to Congress. He was also a master manipulator in King Louis' Court.
Rodetigue Hortalez and Co
A trading company established by Vergennes whose sole purpose was to funnel war material to the patriots. Some of the goods were shoddy, but many were invaluable to the rebel cause, like weapons, gunpowder, tents, clothing, and shoes.
The battle that convinced the French to join the fight publically. After Britain's hard-won victory at Oriskany, General Burgoyne found his troops trapped along the Hudson River. He was forced to surrender about 5,000 troops to General Gates thanks to the cunning of Benedict Arnold. Losing Burgoyne’s army was a major setback for Britiain due to William Howe’s refusal to work with Burgoyne’s strategy.
The British government came up with a plan to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies and then go east to conquer the area that had sparked the rebellion by sending John Burgoyne with troops south from Canada to the Lake Champlain corridor, and then William Howe was to move his troops up the Hudson River and meet up with Burgoyne at Albany; however, Howe decided to not meet up with Burgoyne and instead take Philadelphia, and even though he succeeded, the victory cost the British dearly. Essentially, the HH strategy was supposed to divide the colonies in half and isolate New England, but the British failure here ultimately led to their losing the war.
He was a high-ranking general ordered by the king to join General Gage in fighting the colonists. He pushed Gage to take up an offensive stance against the colonists. He lost to the Americans in the Battle of Saratoga.
The patriot “hero” of Saratoga, at least, the one who got credit for the victory, who was defeated at Camden and removed from military service.
The French general appointed to come to America and command the French troops. He helped defeat Cornwallis alongside Washington at the Battle of Yorktown.
British Lieutenant General in North America, served under Clinton during the failed British siege of Charleston. He also chased Washington out of New York during the New York campaign and was in charge of securing Georgia in the Southern Campaign, and he also beat Gates at Camden. However, he trapped his army in a bad position and was forced to surrender at the battle of Yorktown.
The last major land battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis had stationed his troops there, and the combined forces of Washington’s and Lafayette’s troops forced Cornwallis to surrender.
Treaty of Paris
The Treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War and granted the Americans much land in the west, along with their independence from Britain.