Ch. 6 Civil War Flashcards Preview

IB History of the Americas > Ch. 6 Civil War > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 6 Civil War Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

Union Strengths

Population, four slave states stayed, stronger pool of military experience, navy, more livestock, more industrialization, more railroads.

2

Confederate Strengths

Size of the South, only had to defend, slaves could work homefront, S was motivated and confident in military ability, had cotton to finance war costs.

3

Define mobilization.

The business of preparing a country for war, for example, by calling up troops and supplying them with weapons and training.

4

Militia draft

Conscription of men in state militias

5

Conscription

Compulsory enlistment in the military

6

Ordnance chief

Person who led department responsible for deployment and distribution of weapons/munitions. (James Ripley in Union.)

7

Minie ball

An inch-long lead ball that expanded into the groove of the rifle-musket's barrel, allowing the gun to be shot quickly.

8

Muzzle-loading

Loaded down the barrel. Rifle-muskets were muzzle-loading.

9

Ironclad warships

A ship made of iron or protected by iron plates. South thought these were vital to breaking Union blockade, but Union could make many more iron-clad than CSA.

10

USS Monitor

The ironclad Union ship that fought the Virginia in the first ironclad encounter in history. Neither ship could sink the other, but the Virginia was too damaged to go on.

11

CSS Virginia

Southern ironclad warship that sank two blockading ships but was later in a battle with the Monitor.

12

Total war

A war in which both sides try to employ all manpower and resources to defeat enemy, affecting lives of virtually all citizens.

13

In what ways was the Civil War a total war?

Greatest mobilization of human resources, and Union had goal of destroying CSA economic resources.

14

In what ways was Civil War not a total war?

Not as much cruelty, policies were designed to damage, not kill.

15

Jefferson Davis

President of the CSA. Some saw him as a poor communicator, too conservative, indecisive; others saw him as experienced and exceptional.

16

Martial law

Suspension of ordinary administration and policing, replacing it with the exercise of military authority. Both Lincoln and Davis used it.

17

Impressment of supplies

Confiscation of goods. Davis forced farmers to give 10% produce to war effort.

18

Impressing

Forcing into government service. Ex: Slaves were forced to work in government service.

19

Draft

20

Johnny Reb

Confederate Soldiers' nickname

21

Billy Yank

Union Soldiers' nickname

22

Draft evaders

Those who avoided conscription.

23

Inflationary pressure

Increase in amount of circulating money, resulting in a decline of its value. South faced inflation because the war was hard to finance.

24

Desertion

1/7 CSA, 1/10 Union troops deserted for boredom, fear, etc. Little consistency with punishing deserters meant that desertion was usually successful.

25

Merchant marine

Ships involved in trade, not war. Union used its merchant marine to draw men and vessels.

26

Guerilla war

Type of warfare when small bands of men, not regular troops, harass enemy forces and then return to homes/hideouts until called out again.

27

Habeus corpus

Writ of habeas corpus is the right of a person to know why they are arrested. Lincoln suspended this right to save Maryland for the Union.

28

Judah Benjamin

Member of Davis' cabinet; appointed to dept. of Justice, War, State. Was one of Davis' most influential/heard advisors.

29

Confederate Congress

Congressmen selected by state legislatures. Had senate and hosue. No 2-party system; men tried to appear unified but squabbles occurred.

30

What was one of the biggest issues facing the Confederate Congress?

Wanted to preserve states' rights but also needed to pass laws.

31

Saltpetre

Potassium nitrate, a vital ingredient in gunpowder

32

Blockade runners

Ships (usually built in Britain) that tried to evade Union blockade, trying to trade with the Confederacy. Relatively high success rate. Davis limited runners mainly to essential supplies in, cotton out.

33

Morale

Enthusiasm for the war. Southern morale was high at start of war.

34

Abraham Lincoln

President of US through Civil War. Fought to preserve the Union through any means possible. Suspended civil liberties when necessary but believed in Constitution.

35

Cabinet

Lincoln did not bother much with his cabinet; let them work individually. Seward was his right-hand-man. Had a mix of people in his cabinet.

36

Homestead Act

An act passed by Republicans offering free 160 acre farms out West to settlers who worked them for 5 years.

37

Strike breakers

Workers employed to do the work of those on strike. Northerners did not like black strike breakers, leading to riots.

38

War democrats

Democrats who were determined to see the war fought to a successful conclusion. Supported Lincoln.

39

Copperheads

A Republican nickname for Democrats. Repub. thought that Dems were conspiring to make peace with the South and thought Dems were treasonous.

40

New York draft riots

When names of draftees were read, a mob attacked the recruiting station and rampaged, lynching blacks whom they blamed for the war. Lasted for several days until Lincoln sent troops.

41

Robert E. Lee

Virginian leader of the main Confederate Army. Favored offense over defense.

42

U.S. Grant

General in Chief of Union Army. Used his strategy to win the war, captured Fort Donelson and Vicksburg. Became Union Commander. Regarded as the war's greatest soldier.

43

William T. Sherman

Union general who captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and Carolinas, weakening CSA.