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1

Specie

Hard money; money that is gold, silver, or another precious metal, not paper money.

2

Vice admiralty courts

naval courts without juries designed to settle disputes between merchants and seamen. These courts could condemn sea vessels on smuggling charges

3

Virtual representation

an idea proposed by George Grenville that Parliament represented ALL British people, including the colonists. He argued that M.P.s represented every empirical subject when making legislative decisions.

4

writs of assistance

blanket search warrants allowing customs collectors to search trading ships without any prior evidence as justification in order to catch suspected smugglers. These angered many colonists.

5

Loyal 9

an informal popular rights group in Boston with the same ideals as Sam Adams, who communicated protest plans with important men like Ebenezer Mackintosh and Henry Swift. Led by Sam Adams. An aggressive patriotic Boston group.

6

Stamp Act

The first time Parliament exercised its authority to charge the colonists direct taxes. The act required colonists to pay for stamps to be attached to 50+ paper items, diplomas, deeds, wills, etc, and that stamps be paid for in specie. Grenville hoped to generate substantial revenue with this act to pay for keeping redcoat soldiers in the colonies.

7

Stamp Act Congress

Facing the stamp act, the Massachusetts General Court called for all colonies to join this congress to be held in New York in October 1765. Nine colonies responded, with 27 delegates total, to petition Parliament to relinquish its ability to tax the colonies because there was no representation. It was an example of intercolonial unity.

8

Whigs

A political faction in British Parliament

9

Tories

AKA loyalists, colonists who remained loyal to the king.

10

Political slavery

state of government in which power-hungry officials take over and strip citizens of all liberties, forcing them to live under tyranny.

11

Committee of correspondence

After the Gaspee incident, popular colonial leaders set up committees of correspondence to comminucate with each other because they feared that the colonists responsible for Gaspee may be sent back to England for trial. They were to tell each other if any British government leaders tried to jeapordize any colonial liberties. They communicated with each other to spread news also and were a sign of intercolonial unity.

12

1st Continental Congress

After Coercive Acts, an intercolonial union of delegates were called to form the First Continental Congress (Only Georgia didn’t show). Met in Carpenter’s Hall and discussed action: They would petition Parliament but also prepare for war. Approved the Suffolk Resolves, boycotted British goods, established committees of observation, and determined that the Second Congress would happen in May 1775 unless everything resolved.

13

Seven Year's War

AKA French and Indian War, a conflict between Britain and allies and France and allies. Ended with the Treaty of Paris in which Britain got most of Canada, Louisiana, and Florida. It was a war over new world territory.

14

Townshend Acts

new taxation techniques created by Charles Townshend based on Ben Franklin’s statement that the colonists only objected to direct taxation, not indirect taxation (like hidden trade duties). Luxury items like glass, paper, and lead were taxed, but colonists did not want to pay taxes just to raise British revenue. They protested with a Circular Letter, boycotting British goods, and violence (Boston Massacre).

15

Boston Massacre

Angry about the presence of redcoats, Bostonian workers converged on a lone redcoat guard at the customs house, harassing him. He was joined by some fellow soldiers, and as the crowd got more violent, a soldier fired a shot in fear and the rest followed suit. Five colonists died, and all but two redcoats were found innocent because of self-defense.

16

Pontiac's rebellion

A Native American chief named Pontiac united various tribes to fight against British after they won the war. The French had paid rent to Indians but British didn’t; British didn’t trade firearms, and goods were more expensive. His warriors attacked French-turned-British forts but eventually lost.

17

Boston Tea Act

The Tea Act of 1773 allowed the East India Co to send tea directly to colonies instead of to Britain first, making it cheaper and undercutting the smuggled Dutch tea, and Lord North hoped that the colonists would then buy British tea because even with the tea tax from Townshend act, it was much cheaper. B But when the ship came into the Boston harbor with its tea, Sam Adams demanded it be sent back to England. Hutchinson refused to let it leave. After the 20 day time limit, Bostonians disguised as Native Americans dumped 10,000 pounds worth of tea into the harbor.

18

Quebec Act

provided a royal governor and British-appointed advisory council in Canada territory, but no elected representatives. Also established Roman Catholicism as the territory’s religion, and made the Ohio River the SW boundary of Quebec.

19

Coercive Act

There were four that happened after the Tea Party. 1: The Boston Port bill closed the port until the tea was paid for. 2: Massachusetts Govt. Act: asserted/expanded power of British govt. 3: Administration of Justice Act: provided greater protection for customs collectors and officials: Anyone who harassed them would be sent back to England for trial. 4: Quartering Act 1774, allowing soldiers to be housed anywhere as long as they paid rent.

20

Gaspee

In June 1772 in Rhode Island, there was a royal naval vessel called the Gaspee whose purpose was to catch smugglers, and its captain was particularly efficient. Rhode Islanders were fed up, so they sent a decoy smuggling ship to lure the Gaspee to shore. The ship ran aground, and they burned it.

21

George III

King of England during the time of the American Revolution

22

George Grenville

A powerful English leader who was appointed the king’s chief minister and viewed the Americans as spoiled children. He was responsible for The Orders in Council 1763 (having British boats patrol for smugglers in the colonies), the Proclamation of 1763 (preventing Americans from moving westward), the Sugar Act (trade duties on various items), the Currency Act of 1764 (outlawing paper money), and the Stamp Act.

23

Samuel Adams

Main instigator of rebellion against new British policies in American colonies. “The man of the revolution” who hated Tories like Governor Hutchinson for causing his father to lose all his money. He organized the Sons of Liberty and represented Boston in the Massachusetts Assembly.

24

Benedict Arnold

a former patriot famous for betraying the American cause and switching to the British side.

25

Treaty of Paris

The treaty between France, Spain, and England ending the 7 Years’ War that forced France to give up much of its land in mainland America to the British.

26

Sons of Liberty

a group of Bostonian protestors and instigators in the colonies who used violence, disobedience, threats, and other forms of rebellion to protest the new British laws. They were responsible for Tea Party.

27

John Dickinson

Philadelphian landowner and lawyer who published newspaper essays and Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania that attacked the Townshend acts, saying that the colonists had not actually distinguished between direct and indirect taxes and that taxes to facilitate trade were fine but those to generate revenue were dangerous. He wanted to petition Parliament though, not use violence.

28

Paul Revere

silversmith and member of Adams’ popular rights faction who delivered the Suffolk Resolves to the First Continental Congress after Suffolk County adopted them.
Also rode to warn the minutemen when the British came to seize the colonial arsenals in Lexington and Concord.

29

Minutemen

Colonial militia volunteers.

30

Joseph Galloway

a Philadelphia lawyer who countered the sentiment of the First Continental Congress because he believed that chaos would happen if ties with Britain were severed. He proposed a central government based in America with a colonist-elected council and a British-elected president-general; this plan was “Galloway’s Plan of Union,” and it was rejected. He was harassed and called a loyalist, so he fled to the British army for protection.