Flashcards in Cancer Deck (67)
what solid tumors are considered cancerous?
malignant histological (microscopic) and clinical (behavioral) qualities are properly called cancers. Other tumors are called benign.
define neoplasm and what is a malignant neoplasm?
neoplasm means new growth , malignant neoplasm is synonym for cancer.
define a low-grade cancer
they have well-differentiated cell populations and grow slowly, they differ little from normal cells.
define anaplastic (undifferentiated) tumors
a bizarre cell pattern, that sometimes make it impossible to identify their tissue of origin.
what is the tumors growth fraction?
as colony enlarges some cells become reproductively inactive those that continue to replace represent the growth fraction.
the higher the growth fraction, will the tumor rapidly or slowly increase?
what is a mitotic rate and how can it affect cancer?
a higher mitotic rate can have direct bearing on the prognosis of some cancers (sarcoma)
what id doubling time?
the time requried for a cancer to double in size. slow growing malignancies ca require a decade to produce symptoms. There is why there can be long latent period before certain cancers metastasize or recur.
what kind of tissues can be considered resistant to infiltration and can serve as barrier to tumor expansions?
arterial walls and cartilage.
what is a stroma?
a supportive matrix of a malignant neoplasm. it contains connective tissues and blood vessels.
how can one distinguish between malignant neoplasm from their benign counter part
their tendency to metastasize. when tumor deposits appear in lymphodes and internal organs distant from primary tumor, this is done using lymphatic and blood vessels.
describe how a tumor would metastisize by seeding body cavities
This is a common mode of dissemination for ovarian cancers, that can rupture and scatter tumor deposits throughout the peritoneal cavity.
how do carcinomas spead?
by both lympathic and venous embolization. slower growing carcinomas usually invade lympho nodes prior to turning up in the lungs and liver.
how do sarcomas spread?
through the bloodstream. it is unusual to discover lymph node involvement in many forms of sarcome.
what is an encapsulated tumor?
benign tumors. they grow slowly by expansion rather than infiltration. Although the vast majority pose little risk.
name 5 ways in which benign tumors can result in morbidity?
3. hormone elaboration
4. damage to vital structures
5. malignant transformation.
name a cancer that is aggresive in nature such that it is untreatable
inflammatory breast carcinoma
what is special about a "tumor of low-grade malignancy"?
some cancers that are locally aggresive and capable of causing extensive tissue destruction but virtually never metastasizes.
name two examples of low-grade cancers
what are 6 characteristics of benign tumors?
expansions (growth pattern)
slow growth rate
little mitotic activity
insignificant effect on host
what are 6 characteristics of malignant tumors
infiltrating growth pattern
rapid growth rate
near normal to anaplastic cells
extensive mitotic activity
fatal effect on host
what is the most common form of cancer?
Carcinoma, arises in epithelial tissues.
what is a sarcoma?
malignant tumor of connective tissue origin.
what is a teratomas?
benign or malignant. Arise from primitive cells capable of differentiating into various mature cell lines
what is a hamartoma?
malformed overgrowth of normal tissue. Ex: bowel polyps in the PuetzJeher's syndrome.
what is hypertrophy?
an increase in the size of individual cells in an organ or tissue. Response to physiological stimulus or pathological conditions
what is hyperplasia?
absolute increase in the number of cells in a tissue. typically by excess hormone output.
change from one type of normal cells to another.
what is dysplasia (atypia) ?
abnormal change in the size/shape of cells and their contents. - consider as premalignant condition.