Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (32)
what cells produce insulin?
beta cells in the pancreas
what is another name for T1DM?
insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile.
how does T1DM arise?
when beta cells in the pancreas have been damaged or destroyed, and the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. Possible relation to auto-immune disease.
what is the tx for T1DM?
there is no cure, but constant insulin shots are required to survive.
what is another name for T2dM?
non-insulin dependent diabetes meelitus or adult onset diabetes (AODM). The pancreas usually still produces insulin but the bodys cells are not able to use the insulin. (insulin resistance)
what is the most common form of diabetes?
1/3 of americans with diabetes are unaware that they have it. 90% of people with diabetes, have T2DM.
what is pre-diabetes?
when an individual has blood sugar levels higher than normal but not high enough to be diabetes. this includes IFG, (impaired fasting glucose) and IGT (impaired glucose tolerance)
what is IFG>
blood sugar is mildly elevated after an overnight fast
what is IGT?
blood sugar is mildly elevated on a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test.
what is metabilic syndrome? (insulin resistance syndrome)
its not a disease, but a group of cardiac risk factors often seen together that result in an overall increased risk. 3 of the following 5: abdominal obesity, elevated trig, low HDL, ^ BP and ^ fasting blood sugar.
what is GDM?
gestational diabetes mellitus, develops during pregnancy, that resolves after delivery. All women should be screened for GDM between 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy, or earlier if at high risk.
how does it related to future diabetes risk
some women develop GDM and do not return to normal blood glucose levels after delivery and are dx with T2DM. Women whos levels do return to normal have a 35-60% change of developing diabetes in the next 10-20 yrs.
what is an FBS?
a fasting blood glucose test, is done instead of the glucose tolerance test (faster/cheaper/easier) - a fasting blood glucose of 126mg/dl or more on two separate occasions.
what is a glucose tolerance test?
this measures a person's blood glucose level after fasting and again 2 hours after drinking a high-glucose solutions.
whats the best indicator for monitoring blood sugar control?
Glycated hemoglobin HbA1C. the average blood glucose level over a 3 month period.
what is the most basic form of treatment for diabetes?
proper diet and exercise program.
how does oral medication work in the control of diabetes?
increasing the production of insulin in the pancreas, decreasing the insulin resistance of the body's cells, or decreasing the bodys ability to absorb glucose from the intestine when food is digested.
what is an alternative form of treatment being considered for a cure for T1DM
a pancreas transplant.
what are follow-up examinations for diabetics?
regular exams to follow blood sugar, development complications, blood testing, urine checks and retinal exams.
what are acute complications of diabetes, related to low blood sugar?
hypoglycemia, can result in seizures, loss of consciousness, ketosis (dehydration/fatigue/nausea/mental confusion) untreated can lead to a coma.
what are chronic complications of diabetes?
there are macrovascular complications and microvascular complications, neuropathy (lack of sensation in toes and fingers)
what are macrovascular complications?
CAD, CVD, peripheral arterial disease (which lead to amputations) these complications can be revealved by ECGs, Stress trest, echos, angio's, carotid doppler and other tests.
what are microvascular complications?
kidney disease and retinopathy (cause of blindness). these are the earliest indications of vascular diseases.
what is the leading cause of renal failure"?
diabetic nephropathy. check this by checking serum creatinine levels on blood profile, or micro/albumin ratio./
what is a treatment for diabetic nephropathy?
ACE inhibitors can slow the progression of kidney damage.
what is proliferative retinopathy?
advanced condition involving the growth of new blood vessels in the retina. this can be tx with laser therapy, which can delay blindness.
why is the prevalence of diabetes increasing
increasing age in the population, sedentary lifestyles, and increasing incidence of obesity
Where is diabetes more common? (contries)
In developed countries, but greatest increase of prevalence is expected in developing countries.
what are some risk factors that have been identified to increase risk of developing T2DM?
pre-diabetes, hx of GDM, obesity, age. Fx of T2DM may be a factor.