Coronary Artery Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Coronary Artery Disease Deck (62)
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1

what is the number one killer in the US?

CAD

2

what organs and tissues are part of the circulatory system?

viens, arteries, lungs, capillaries, heart,

3

what are the 3 layers of the heart

inner endocardium,
the middle muscular myocardium
pericardium

4

what are the the names of the four valves of the heart?

1. pulmonic semilunar valve,
2. R sided tricuspid valve
3. L sides mitral valve,
4. aortic semilunar valve

5

what are the two entities of the circulatory system?

pulmonary circulation
systemic circulation

6

what is the pulmonary circulation entity?

supplied blood soley to the lungs.
superior and inferior vena-> cavae R atrium-- tricuspid valve-> R ventricle. ---(With ventricular systole)-->pulmonic valve--> pulmonary artery--> lungs. -->pulmonary vien -> heart

7

describe the systemic circulation entity

O2 blood -> L atrium--mitral valve---> Larger L ventricle---(with systole)--> aortic valve---> aorta

8

what is the main artery of the body? What follows ?

aorta -> arterioles-> capillary network

9

what is the main vein of the body? what leads up to it?

capillary network -> venules -> veins, -> vena cavae

10

how does the heart get it bloods supply

coronary circulation (systemic ) is achieved via coronary arteries, (L/R) which branch off the ascending aorta. The L main coronary artery breaks L anterior descending, and L circumflex.

11

what artery runs down the front of the heart, and suppled blood to the anterior wall, anterolateral wall, and the septum?

LAD

12

what does the LCx artery supply blood to?

down the back of the heart, and supplies to the lateral wall via obtuse marginal branches.

13

What part of the heart does the RCA supply blood to?

The thin walled R ventricle

14

what supplies blood to the inferior and posterior walls of the L ventricle?

PAD (posterior descending artery)

15

what conditions affect the blood flow thorugh the coronary arteries?

vasculitis, aneurysm, or spasms, or atherosclerosis.

16

what is atherosclerosis?

The systemic degenerative process that involves the gradual accumulation of a fatty-fibrous material on the inside walls of a large and medium sized arterties. eventually compromising flow and causing Ischemia.

17

atherosclerosis can lead to what other vascular consequences?

angina, MI, CVAs and PVDs, and the aorta causing aneurysm formation.

18

what is a fatty streak, and when does it occur?

in childhood, an accumulation of smooth muscles cells and lipids in the intima or inner layer of the blood vessel, in response to some injury.

19

at what percentage of blockage does atherosclerosis start to become symptomatic?

when the vessel is 70-80% obstruction. At this point a reduction of blood flow produces angina (chest pain)

20

At least half of all myocardial infarctions are caused by lesions of _____ % obstruction.

21

what are modifiable risk factors to atherosclerosis?

age, gender, fx, hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes.

22

are men or women more likley to develop CAD?

men, women however become 2-3 x more likley to develop CAD after menopause. Thank those Fatty hormones ;)

23

how does family history play a role in the risk of CAD?

1 member dx, increases your chances by 2 fold.

24

how does hyperlipidemia play a role in the risk of CAD?

TC = LDL + HDL + TG/5

25

how much does smoking increase your risk of developping CAD?

2-3 fold, and once you quit, your chances decrease by 1/2 in just the first year.

26

how does hypertension play a role in CAD?

systolic and diastolic HTN play a positive, strong, and continuous graded relationship to the development of CHD with systolic hypertension being more predictive as age increases.

27

what are the statistic of a person with diabetes and their risk of CAD?

they are more likely to have extensive CAD, silent ischemia, and less likely to do well after CABG or angioplasty than all the non-diabetics with CAD.

28

what are some other factors that influence the risk of CAD, but are not measurable for insurance purposes?

elevated homocysterin levels,
elevated inflammatory markers
obesity
atherohenic diet
lack of exercise
psychosocial stressors

29

Name two inflammatory markers

plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein.

30

name other markers that point to an increased risk of atherosclerosis, and should be included in the assesment of the probability of CAD

1. aortic sclerosis
2. a decreased ankle-brachial index
3. an increased carotid intimal-media thickness
4. micoalbuminuria / renal insufficincy
5. L ventricular hypertrophy on ECK/ECHO