Flashcards in Basic Laboratory Testing Deck (116)
what is the definition of sensitivity?
the measure of the tests ability to detect persons who have a disease or condition (true positive)
What is the definition of specificity?
the measure of how well the test excludes the possibility of of a particular disease (true negatives)
between sensitive and specificity, which is attempted to be maximized by laboratory testing.
what is hemolysis?
rupture of RBC, classified as slight, moderate, or severe, based on amount of hemoglohin present in serum.
what is Lipemia?
presence of high concentration of lipids in serum.
what are the two origins of lipemia?
1. due to postprandial hyperlipidemic following a high-fat meal
2. genetic make-up (uncommon)
what is glycolysis?
the breakdown of glucose.
what tests provide a more reliable estimate of average glucose levels?
Fructosamine and HB A1C.
1. miligram per 100ml sample
3. enzyme activity, International units/liter.
Most of the world has switched to "S.I" units. Name 2 examples.
U/L and mmol/L
what is Venipuncture?
blood drawn from a vein, obtained by PM, phlebotomist, nurses, or doctors.
what is dried blood spot?
the side of the finger is puncures with a lancet and as droplets of blood form, the droplets are transferred to a small piece of blotting paper. used fo HIV
saliva and urine?
lower policy amounts, and certin risk assessments. Saliva detexts HIV, cotinine, cocaine.
what tests can be collected form an AOR?
saliva and urine.
what is the typical transport time for blood? (seperation of serum from CBC)
2 days. `
what is the standard deviation?
it refers to the normal variation in personal biologic set point and reflects differences in the genetic background of people. the reference range includes 95% of the population.
on what basis is relative risk based on?
its based on a comparison to the standard mortality of he same age applicant.
how is pricing for insurance products determined?
based on average mortality based on age. increased risk indicates a higher risk of death compared to the STD risj.
what is evaluated through a basic urine sample?
drugs, nicotine, creatining, protein, glucose and blood cells, antibodies.
what is evaluated through a saliva sample?
HIV, cotinine, and cocaine.
what is a reflex test, and when would you order one?
reflexive testing is run following abnormal levels in the BW. ^ ALT > hepatitis screnning is run, an alcohol screening is run for elevated HDL and liver enzymes.
how long is a urine sample typically held?
4-5 weeks. ,
what is the best measure of renal filtration function in a urinalysis
GFR- glomerular filtration rate, we can be measured by excretion of an injected dye or radionucleotide. eGFR is typically used in u/w process.
how is eGFR calculated?
using age, sex, and the serum creatinine measurement from the blood
what is creatinine, and what is the average dispenced amount by people?
the breakdown product of muscle metabolism. average 1g per day.
why is creatinine used to adjust for variation in urine samples?
it is a steadied pace, and typically urine concentration can vary based on fluid intake, but using creatinine as a based of [ ] for comparison allows for more consistent results. `
what is the best method to determine concentration changes?
by using the rations such as protein/creatinine, and albumin/creatinine.
some people will try to adjust their urine levels to read lower/ negative readings. what is the creatinine minimum we will accept, before asking for a new sample/investigate (women vx men)
what amount of proteinuria is associated with excess mortality