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Flashcards in carbohydrates Deck (49):
1

what is the ratio of C:H:O

1:2:1

2

Simple carbohydrate structure

mono,di, and oligosaccharides (3-9 units)
glucocse, lactose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose

3

What are polysaccarides

more than 9 sugar units
starche,glycogen, cellulose

4

what breaks down oligosaccarides

alpha galactosidase (Beano)

5

What is amylose

a polymer of alpha glucose in the 1,4 linkage

6

Polysaccharides a-glycosidic bonds, are they soluble?

digestable, (simple starch and glycogen) yes they are soluble

7

Polysaccarides B-glycosidic bonds, are they digestable?

no, insoluble (dietary fiber)

8

What type of linkage is used in an indegestable carb

this is fiber,B-1,6 linkage

9

What is the function of simple sugars

1.Energy (atp) from TCA cycle
2.Body heat (digestion and metabolism) from a-1,4 linkage
3.carbo skeleton for synthesis of non-essential amino acids
4. excess stored as glycogen then fat

10

How do dogs and cats digest simple sugars

mouth-lack salvitary a-amylase
stomach-not much
small intestines-exocrine pancreatic a-amylase and brush border enzymes like the di/oligosaccharidases
Large Intestines-fermentation of undigested and unabsorbed carbs

11

Cereal grains mostly consist of ...

starch

12

Is digestability of cereal grain high or low in dogs

high if cooked properly

13

How is amylose broken down

By amylase to mallose and maltoriose

14

what does amylopectin break down into

isomaltose aad limit dextrins (polymers of glucose molecules that are broken down by the brush border enzymes)

15

When are simple sugars required in dog and cat food

conditionally essential- pregnancy, lactation, and growth, needed for high energy needs

16

What are carbohydrates used for in pet foods

energy source and give structure to the food

17

where are carbs broken down

lactose: in the brush border of small intestines by lactase into galactose and glucose
starch: HCL in the stomach and pancreatic a-amylase(1,4 linkage)to a-dextrinase and glucoamylase(1,6 linkage) which break down into glucose
sucrose: galactose and fructose
sucrose:

18

Enzymes to break down carbs

lactase
glucoamylase: breaks down maltose
sucrase-isomaltase: sucrose and oligo with 8 glucose molecules with a-1,6 glycosidic bonds (a-dextrins)
trehalase: breaks trehalose

19

Ruminant dietary carbohydrates

structural carbs (cellulose, pectins, hemicellulose, and lignin)
non-structural: (sugars, starches aand fructosans)

20

Ruminants undergo microbial fermentation of...

short chain fatty acids

21

Primary enzyme absorbed in GI tract

dogs n cats: glucose
rum: scfa

22

primary substrate for fat synthesis

cats n dogs: glucose
rum:acetate

23

cellular demand for glucose

high in dogs and cats as well as ruminants

24

Importance of gluconeogenesis

dogs and cats: important for glycerol n amino acids
rum: very important and continuous for proprionate, glycerol and amino acids

25

glucose levels are finely regulated in blood by

insulin and glucagon. when glucagon increases insulin decreases

26

glucose is made anerobically and aerobically into

aerobicly: atp, co2, h20, and heat

anerobically: lactate

27

glucose is stored as

glycogen and triglycerides

28

cats lack whatkind of taste buds

sucrose

29

Cats have ___ intestinal levels of sucrase and lactase

low

30

Are cats sugar transport systems adaptive?

no, if they eat a high carb meal they cant increase metabolism for it

31

cats have a ___ pancreatic a-amylase production (as compared to dogs) but its inducible in the pancres

low

32

Cats have ____ hepatic and pancreatic glucokinase activity

low.
post absorbtion of glucose, no neg feedback so stores as fat
rely on other 3hexokinases

33

What is dietary Fiber

insoluable carbohydrate, complex carb, resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes, found in plants. made of b-glyc bonds

34

What is Crude Fiber

assay developed for wood pulp measures it
required on pet feed labels
somewhat inaccurate

35

What is Total Dietary Fiber

more accurate chemical measurement
measures soluable and insoluable fiber

36

What is bacterial fiber fermentation

done with short chain fatty acids n gas.
butyrate, propionate and acetate.
makes energy sources for cells lining the large int.
forms an acidic environment
promote water and electrolyte absorption
influences the # and types of bacteria found in the
large int. (favors beneficial bacteria and inhibits pathogens)

37

how much energy is taken from SCFA

bovine (colon): 70-80%
Equine (large int) 30%
Canine (larg int) less than 10%

38

What are the types of soluble fiber and where are they found

Fibers: Pectin, Gums, mucilages, Hemicelluloses
Found: fruits and veg, oats and oat bran, legumes, psyllium husks

39

what are the types of insoluble fiber and where are they found

Fibers: hemicelluloses, celluloses, mod. cellulose, lignin
Found: veg, cereal grains, seed coats, wheat bran

40

How do rapidly ferrmented fibers work in anerobic bacteria

they are water soluble and turn into viscous gels
readily fermented in the sm. int.
bind to minerals (cations)
bind to digetive enzymes and get trapped in the gel
slow nutrient absorption

41

How do slowly fermented fibers work

insoluble in water, do not form gels or bind minerals
resistant to bacterial fermentation
can't bind to digestive enzymes
slow nutrient absoption, slow post-perangeal blood glucose spike

42

what are two big fiber sources contributing to the diet

soy mill run and peanut hulls (NOT corn and soybean meal)

43

What are the fibers used the most in pet food

cellulose, guar gum, pectin, psyllium husks, and beet pulp.

44

regular commercial foods are usually in the ___ scale for fiber enhanced dog foods

low.
moderate is 15% and high is 27%

45

Fiber can be used for what types of issues

obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia (can't digest lipids), normalize intestinal mobility, trichobezoars (added for hairball), colitis, constipation (need soluble fiber for cat constipation)

46

does crude fiber equal the total dietary fiber?

no.

47

Depending on the fiber type and how much, can fiber be used to treat disorders?

yes.

48

In order to select the most appropriate fiber type for a disease you must ...

have clinical experience

49

can one single fiber source do it all?

no.