Vitamins and Minerals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamins and Minerals Deck (52):
1

calcium is needed for

bone composition

2

phosphorus is needed for

growth and hair

3

sodium is needed for

maintaining blood pressure

4

Vitamins

organic micronutrient
small amounts but essential for normal physiologc function
absence causes a deficiency sign

5

minerals

inorganic elements in food
stuctural, critical constituent of body fluids, catalysts, and cofactors

6

Toxicities

protein: renal disease
fat: obesity and diabetes
calcium: bone deformation,urinary stones
phosphorus: bone loss,renal disease
sodium: hypertension, renal disease

7

deficiencies

protein: poor growth
fat: skin disease
calcium: bone strength
phosphorus: poor growth, dull coat
sodium: fatigue, wter balance

8

Proteins optimal range

varies by age, wide range of optimial intake
no toxicity

9

Selenium optimal range

very small toxicity n def can happen easily

10

optimals vary with stages in life

stressed : need more but small tolerance
Younger: need more bt less tolerant

11

fat soluble vitamins

require fat
stored effectively
can be toxic in excess

12

water soluble vitamins

not stored effectively
daily intake is constant
excessive intake is safe

13

Wht are the fat soluble vitamins

A
D
E
K
E and K are very safe

14

water soluble vitamins

thiamin b1, bioflavin b2, niacin, pyridoxine b6, pantothenic acid, folic acid, cobalamin b12, biotin, choline, vitamin c

15

Macro Minerals

calcium
phosphorus
potasium
sodium
magnesium
cl
sulfur
need more in the diet everyday

16

functions of macromolecules

structure of bones and teeth
membrane potential
fluid balance
acid base balance
second messengers
storage and transport ofenergy
cofactors of enzymes

17

Functions of microminerals

associated with a specific molecule
like anenzyme, hormone, carrier protein or vitamin
co-enzymes
required in trace amounts

18

micro minerals

iron
copper
manganese
zinc
selenium
colbalt
iodine

19

ultra trace elements

molybdenum
fluorine
nickel
silicon
arsenic
chromium
vanadium
in some species there is a min. req for these, but unknown if it is for all species.

20

Micronutrient deficiencies occur in

K
Thiamin B1
Cobalamin B12
Calcium
Zinc
Iron
Se
Mg
affects all species or select species

21

Vitamin K cycle

clots
get requirements from the gut
K1: phylloquinone (plants)
K2: bacterial syntesis
K3: menadione synthtic form

22

vitamin K deficiency

hemorrhaging
uncommon but occurs in rat poisoning or moldy sweet clover

23

Thiamine B1

cofactor in energy rxns
from ruminal microbes in ruminants

24

Thiamine B1 deficiency

affects every species
anorexia and weight loss
neurological symptoms
cardiovasc and resp symptoms
Becomes inactivated by heat and thiaminases n hi sulfur diet. (ruminants: high grain diets monogast: raw fish/shellfish)

25

thiamin deficiency causes

star gazing (opisthotonus)
abnormal hypertension, spazms of the neck (neck flexed and downward), blindness and staggering, loses thiamin by urination from other disorders

26

Cobalamin b12

absorbed in the ileum ONLY
requires intrinsic factor from the stomach

27

hypocobalaminemia in cats

found common in cats for chonic GI symptoms
decreases cobalmin
treated with cobalmin
will not respond to other therapies if cobalamin is low

28

calcium to phosphorus ratio in dogs

1 or 1.5 to 1

29

calcium to phosphorus ratio in cats

1:1 about

30

Calcium deficiency

postparturient ypocalcemia (milk fever)- eclampsia
very common in homemade diets

31

Iron deficiency

from chonic blood loss, otherwise not all that common
usually fine with good food.
Anemia is an iron deficieny

32

Magnesium

majority in bone or intracellularly
only 1% in plasma
mostly unbound
some bound but mainly to albumin

33

Mg deficiency

neuromuscular signs
Hypomagesemic tetany inadult rumminants
common in grazers
low urinary mg
nervous, tremors, twitching of facial muscles, staggering, convusions,
occurs in pastures with increases manure content or nitrogent content

34

zinc deficiency

In Pigs: parakeratosis- reddening of the skin and scabs
abnormal growth, depressed appetite
In Calves: inflammation of nose and mouth
stiffness of joints and swollen feet parakeratosis
improvement is rapid and dramatic with zn supplements but has a small margin of safety and can destroy red blood cells

35

Copper toxicity

Sheep are very sensative
pigs and cows mostly resistant
where there is an iron overload
laryngitis, bronchitis, diarrheaa,anemia,emaciation

36

Iodine

mostly in the thyroid gland
15-20 mg in the body
component of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 made from the thyroid gland

37

Iodine T3 hormone

major active formof thyroid hormone. Acts like a steroid hormone.
made from T4 in liver and kidney via iodothyronine deiodionases
t3 binds to nuclear receptors on target tissue and interacts withdna to modulate transcription

38

t4 is the major

circulating thyroid hormone

39

iodine deficiency

Goiter (overgrowth of the thyroid)
reproductive abnormalities, weak, dead young, hairless
In Young: decreased osteoblast acctivity because less t3, growth arrest, epiphyseal dysgenesis and dalay bone age
no effect on bone in adullts

40

what is the greatest cause of preventable brain damage

iodine deficiency
failure of dev of crebrlcorex (vsual n auditry areas)

41

vitamin C is essential in

capybara, guinea pigs
fruit bats
teleost fish
primates
psserine birds

42

microvitamins toxic in excess

vitamin A
Vitamin D
Calcium

43

Microminerals toxic in excess

mg
cu

44

vitamin a toxicity

Used for: vision and cell differentiation
3 kinds: retinal,retinol,retinoic acid
Cats NEED vitamin A
B-carotene can be converted in some species
Causes: bone pain, bony chnges (bony fusions), nerologic signs

45

vitamin D

Some species can make it some can't
Steroid prohormone
works at the nuclear level
biosynthesis can be inadequate, and consumptionwill compensate indecrease in biosynthesis
Needed for calcium metabolism (active transport of calcium needs vitamin D)
dogs and cats cant make vitamin d even with sun

46

vitamin D toxicity and deficiency

Deficienc: impared mineralization of growing bones (rickets)
toxicity:uncommon from diet alone, but found in rodenticides --renal failure, soft tissue mineralziation n accumulates in the fat

47

steotitus

inflammation of body fat

48

Vitamin E deficiency

with fatty acids (fish oils) you need more vitamin e
Antioxidant
linked to pufa intake
Deficiency: species specific, other compounds can help (selenium and methionine)
seen in swine and sometimes cats

49

Micronutrients of special concern for cats

1. Vitamin A (cannot make this)
2. Thiamin B1 (other disorders can cause a deficiency)
3. pyridoxine (cn be paired with thyaminase)
4. cobalamin (sensative to antibiotics or gi diseases)

50

what do cats have a high dietary req for

Niacin and pyridoxine (B6)

51

micronutrients of rare clinical relavance

riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, vitamin c, biiotin,choline, copper, mangangese, cobalt, ultra trace elements.

52

Micronutrients lacking in homade dog and cat food

calcium!!!!
microminerals!
thiamin (B1)
cobalamin (B12)
taurine