feeding calves Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > feeding calves > Flashcards

Flashcards in feeding calves Deck (18):
1

calve at

22-24 mo

2

newborn calve

remove calf from dam asap (30-60) min
disinfect navel
feed colostrum
plce calf in housing and wean at 8 weeks

3

5 c's of successful calf rearing

colostrum
calories
comfort
cleanliness
consistency

4

5 q's of colostrum

quality
quantity
quickness
squeeky clean
quantifying the results

5

why is colostrum important

syndesmochorial placenter
immunoglobulins cannot ccross the fetus
calf is not protected

6

failure of passive transfeer

less than 10 mg/ml of igg

7

igg will

reduce treatment and mortality
improve growth rate and feed efficiency
decreased age at first calving
increased first andsecond lactation

8

for highest quallity colostrum

harvest with in 1-2 hours, 6 hr max

9

how to increase colostrum quality

dry cow nutrition
avoid long or short dry periods
vaccinate when dry
harvest within 2 hours

10

how much igg in the average calf

10 mg/ml

11

how much to feed at first feeding

10% of body weight,
about 1 gallon

12

why feed within 1-2 hours

calf is born with an open gut, then closes

13

nutriton program: birth to weaning

doouble birth wt by 56 days
1.6-1.8 lb/day
develop functional rumen and be weaned by week 7-8

14

Pre Ruminant

Birth to 3-4 weeks
do not have a functional rumen
can't digest solid feed
abomasum does the work
dependant on liquid diet of milk/milk replacer (need morein the winter 3-4 quarts twice a day or 2-3 twice a day in summer)
calf starter and water (free choice)
water only after day 3
rumen lacks papillae

15

abomasonal digestion in pre-ruminant

milk clots in the abomasum within 10 minutes
chymosin (rennin)acts on caisin
whey has many proteins
milk clot is slowly digested by pepsin and hcl and released into
intestines.
milk proteins are best digested

16

intestinal digestion of pre-ruminant

sugars are poorly digested
except lactose
until week 3-4
pancreatic protein enzymes increse after birth (trypsin and chymotripsin)

17

Transition Phase (week 3-4 to weaning)

milk, grain and water
begin developing functinoal rumen
takes 3 weeks but continues as long as milk is fed
grain feeding promotes butyric and propioic acid production
llowers the ph
increses bacterial growth
rumen wont develop if milk only
graaaiiinn!!! not forage.

18

Ruminant phase

at 225 lbs
around 8 weeks
milk is discontinued
post weaning diet
1-2 weeks: grain and water
3 weeks: grain, water and forages