Flashcards in Proteins Deck (25):
Protein are made up of...
carbon, oxyen, nitrogen, hydroen, sulfur, and phosphorus
do animals have a protein req?
no, just an amino acid requirement
What structure has biologic activity with true food allergy?
tertiary. this structure looks foreign to the bdy and makes an antibdy to it. Protein hydrolysate via enzyme bacteria is used to make the immune system not recognize it.
What are simple proteins
fibrous (collagen, elastin and keratin)
globular (enzymes, homones, antibodies)
what are conjugated proteins
Glycoproteins (protein with a carbohydrate)
Lipoproteins (protein w a lipid)
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL,HDL
Metalloproteins (protein w a metal)
hemoglobin, cytochromes, caseins
What are some nitrogen containing protein compounds
urea and ammonia
how much protein in each area of the body
33% in muscle
37% in body fluids
20% in bone and cartilage
10% in skin
what are the functions of proteins
structural (collagen, elastin, actin/myosin, keratin)
blood proteins (hemoglobin, transferrin, albumin, globulin)
other-enzymes, hormones, antibodies
Where are proteins digested ??
Dogs and cats: stomach: by pepsin(meats) and HCL
small int.: pancreatic enzymes-trypsin chymotripsin,
brush border enzymes
4 diff amino aacid carrier systems
Ruminants: Abomasum: HCL
What enzymes break down proteins
pepsin (from pepsinogen and HCL and pepsin)
Rennin (from chymosinogen)
Trypsin (from trysinogen)
Elastase (from pro-elastse)
Carboxypep A (from procarboxypep. A)
Carboxypep B (from procarboxypep B)
What is Rennin
comes from Rennet: is a natural complex ofenzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mothers milk
another name for rennin is chymosin
coagulates milkcausing it to seperate into curds and whey
used to coagulate milk in the making of cheese
Membrane bound peptidases
apical membrane of mucosal cells
hydrolyze peptide products of luminal phase
in the small int. produce free amino acids, di and tripeptides
Absorption of free amino acids is
there are co transport systems for aa in neutral, acidic, or basic aa.
sodium amino co transport system for absorption of proline and hydroxyproline.
Absorptino of di and tri peptides are done by
transported across apical membranes and are converted to free amino acids
how does ruminant digestion work/? whatisthe fate of a dietary protein or non protein nitrogen
1. Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) escape rumen digestion in the abomasum
2. microbial fermentation of protein and NPN
3. fermentation of ruminal nitrogen is converted to bacterial protein in the abomasum
4. ammonia is converted to urea in the liver and is recycled back into the rumen via saliva or excreted by the kidneys
5. abomasal protein is made , it is a mixture ofmicrobial protien and RUP
Proteins are broken down into amino acids, then delivered to the liver what does the liver send out?
1. serum proteins
2. amino acids
3. tissue (kerratin, collagen, and elastin)
4. blood cell production
5. antibodies and hormones
6. Urea -- to make energy or kidneys to make urine
this is a loss of ammonia
cats have a very active ___ cycle
because ammonia is very toxic and must be converted
gluconeogenesis makes lots of ammonia
what amino acid is highly essential for cats?
What is protein turnover of metabolism
A continuous process of releasing amino acids from muscle and putting the back in.
muscle and plasma proteins have long life
nitrogen is lost--but there is a balance bw nitrogen consumed and nitrogen lost
What is crude protein
Apparent = crude protein - fecal protein
True = crude protein - illial protein (use a tube to sample through)
sulfuric acid + whole food --digest-- = nitrogen determination x 16%= crude protein of the diet
what affects the amount of protein which must be fed to the patient?
higher quality protein means a lower dietary protein level needed
What are the dietary essential amino acids
methionine, arginine, tryptophan, threonin, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, valine,phenylalanine, taurine
How are protein requirements calculated?
from the amino acid requirement converted to nitrogen requirement n expressed as protein requirement.
this is about 50% of essential aa
and 50 % non essential aa
amino acid requirement will tell
how much protein.
depends on life stage, essential amino acids and extras for non essential, the exact amino acid req is not knwn for every disease state.