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Flashcards in Proteins Deck (25):

Protein are made up of...

carbon, oxyen, nitrogen, hydroen, sulfur, and phosphorus


do animals have a protein req?

no, just an amino acid requirement


What structure has biologic activity with true food allergy?

tertiary. this structure looks foreign to the bdy and makes an antibdy to it. Protein hydrolysate via enzyme bacteria is used to make the immune system not recognize it.


What are simple proteins

fibrous (collagen, elastin and keratin)
globular (enzymes, homones, antibodies)


what are conjugated proteins

Glycoproteins (protein with a carbohydrate)
food allergens
Lipoproteins (protein w a lipid)
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL,HDL
Metalloproteins (protein w a metal)
hemoglobin, cytochromes, caseins


What are some nitrogen containing protein compounds

urea and ammonia


how much protein in each area of the body

33% in muscle
37% in body fluids
20% in bone and cartilage
10% in skin


what are the functions of proteins

structural (collagen, elastin, actin/myosin, keratin)
blood proteins (hemoglobin, transferrin, albumin, globulin)
energy (gluconeogenesis)
other-enzymes, hormones, antibodies


Where are proteins digested ??

Dogs and cats: stomach: by pepsin(meats) and HCL
small int.: pancreatic enzymes-trypsin chymotripsin,
and carboxypeptidases
brush border enzymes
4 diff amino aacid carrier systems
Ruminants: Abomasum: HCL


What enzymes break down proteins

pepsin (from pepsinogen and HCL and pepsin)
Rennin (from chymosinogen)
Trypsin (from trysinogen)
chymmotrypsin (chymotrypsinogen)
Elastase (from pro-elastse)
Carboxypep A (from procarboxypep. A)
Carboxypep B (from procarboxypep B)


What is Rennin

comes from Rennet: is a natural complex ofenzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mothers milk
another name for rennin is chymosin
coagulates milkcausing it to seperate into curds and whey
used to coagulate milk in the making of cheese


Membrane bound peptidases

apical membrane of mucosal cells
hydrolyze peptide products of luminal phase
in the small int. produce free amino acids, di and tripeptides
for absorption


Absorption of free amino acids is

sodium dependant
there are co transport systems for aa in neutral, acidic, or basic aa.
sodium amino co transport system for absorption of proline and hydroxyproline.


Absorptino of di and tri peptides are done by

transported across apical membranes and are converted to free amino acids


how does ruminant digestion work/? whatisthe fate of a dietary protein or non protein nitrogen

1. Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) escape rumen digestion in the abomasum
2. microbial fermentation of protein and NPN
3. fermentation of ruminal nitrogen is converted to bacterial protein in the abomasum
4. ammonia is converted to urea in the liver and is recycled back into the rumen via saliva or excreted by the kidneys
5. abomasal protein is made , it is a mixture ofmicrobial protien and RUP


Proteins are broken down into amino acids, then delivered to the liver what does the liver send out?

1. serum proteins
2. amino acids
3. tissue (kerratin, collagen, and elastin)
4. blood cell production
5. antibodies and hormones
6. Urea -- to make energy or kidneys to make urine
this is a loss of ammonia


cats have a very active ___ cycle

urea cycle.
because ammonia is very toxic and must be converted
gluconeogenesis makes lots of ammonia


what amino acid is highly essential for cats?



What is protein turnover of metabolism

A continuous process of releasing amino acids from muscle and putting the back in.
muscle and plasma proteins have long life
nitrogen is lost--but there is a balance bw nitrogen consumed and nitrogen lost


What is crude protein

Apparent = crude protein - fecal protein

True = crude protein - illial protein (use a tube to sample through)

sulfuric acid + whole food --digest-- = nitrogen determination x 16%= crude protein of the diet


what affects the amount of protein which must be fed to the patient?

higher quality protein means a lower dietary protein level needed


What are the dietary essential amino acids

methionine, arginine, tryptophan, threonin, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, valine,phenylalanine, taurine


How are protein requirements calculated?

from the amino acid requirement converted to nitrogen requirement n expressed as protein requirement.
this is about 50% of essential aa
and 50 % non essential aa


amino acid requirement will tell

how much protein.
depends on life stage, essential amino acids and extras for non essential, the exact amino acid req is not knwn for every disease state.


Can you have a toxic amount of amino acids

no notwith animal and plant protein sources