Cardiac Cycle & Valvular Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

PHYSIOLOGY > Cardiac Cycle & Valvular Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Cycle & Valvular Heart Disease Deck (52):
1

cardia cycle diagram

- pressure and volume

2

pressure on the upper part

- ventricular pressure
- aortic pressure
- left atrial pressure

3

volume on the lower part

- end diastolic volume when the heart is filled
- end systolic volume after the heart has ejected blood
- stroke volume
- difference bet EDV - ESV = SV

4

P wave

- atrial depolarization
- signal to the atrium to contract to push blood into the ventricles
- during ventricular filling
- during diastole

5

ventricular pressure

- systole

6

contracting ATRIA

- VENTRICLE is being filled

7

contacting VENTRICLE

- ATRIA IS being filled

8

QRS

- closure of the mitral valve (R wave) S1
- depolarization of the ventricles
- initiate systolic constriction ventricles

9

QRS valvular events

- closure of the mitral valve

10

R wave

- S1
- first heart sound

11

ventricular depolarization

- pressure in the ventricle is increasing
- isovolumetric contraction
- ventricular pressure >80 mmHg
- it pushes open the aortic valve, EDV
- open of the aortic valve
- blood is ejected to the aorta
- aortic pressure is rising simultaneously with the ventricular pressure

12

ventricular pressure falls

- causing fall in aortic pressure
- beginning of T wave
- ventricular repolarization to relax

13

T wave

- ventricular repolarization (RELAX)
- AORTIC PRESSURE >VENTRICULAR PRESSURE
- S2 second heart sound
- closure of the aortic valve

14

S2

- second heart sound
- closure of the aortic valve
- closure of the pulmonary valve causing split weaker pressure

15

T wave valvular event

- aortic closure
- S2

16

P wave in a EKG

- atrial depolarization
- mitral valve is opening
- filling of the heart
- no sound
- S3, S4

17

atrial depolarization

- S3, S4

18

QRS

- ventricular depolarization
- mitral close
- S1

19

PR interval

- AV node conduction

20

T wave

- ventricular repolarization
- closure of the aortic valve
- S2

21

QT or ST interval

- ejection phase
- aortic valve open

22

S1

- closure of the mitral valve and tricuspid valve

23

S2

- closure of aortic and pulmonary valve

24

widening split of S2

- pulmonary stenosis delay closure of the pulmonary valve
- right bundle branch block

25

fixed splitting of S2

- atrial septal defect (ASD)
- L=>R shunt

26

paradoxical splitting

- left bundle branch block
- advance aortic stenosis delay closure of aortic valve

27

apical beat

- 5th ICS MCL
- mitral valve

28

aortic valve

- second intercostal space R of the sternum

29

pulmonary valve

- second intercostal space L of the sternum

30

tricuspid valve

- 3rd, 4th , 5th intercostal space to the left of the sternum

31

mitral area

- 1st heart sound loudest
- due to closure of mitral valve

32

aortic area

- 2nd heart sound louder
-

33

1st heart sound

- finger rises in the carotid artery
- systolic interval

34

2nd heart sound

- finger falls in the carotid artery
- diastolic interval

35

S3

- heard early diastole

36

S4

- heard late diastole

37

systolic murmur

- heard in the S1
- rise of the finger

38

diastolic murmur

- heard S2
- fall of the finger

39

murmur

- systolic
- diastolic

40

systolic murmur

- aortic stenosis
- mitral insufficiency/regurgitation

41

diastolic murmur

- aortic insufficiency/regurgitation
- mitral stenosis

42

S3

- just after opening of the AV valves
- during rapid filling, ventricle with a large chamber
- normal finding in children and young adults
- in older adults, occurs with volume overload, sign of cardiac disease

43

S4

- atrial contraction, during the last part of filling phase
- stiff ventricle concentric hypertrophy
- myocardial infarction

44

venous pulse pressure tracing

- jugular pulse which is generated by the right side of the heart
- intrapleural pressure is closer point it zero

45

venous pulse pressure tracing
A wave

- coincides with the P wave in ECG
- atrial contraction RA
- correlates with the PR interval
- stiff ventricle, pulmonic stenosis and insufficiency
- absent in atrial fibrillation and other atrial arrhythmias

46

venous pulse pressure tracing
V wave

- biphasic decent and ascent
- atrial filling during ventricular systole when the tricuspid valve is closed
- peak corresponds to T wave opening of the tricuspid valve
- occur in tricuspid insufficiency and right heart failure

47

venous pulse pressure tracing
C wave

- pressure in the veins due to bulging of the tricuspid valve
- during ventricular contraction
- coincides with the QRS in ECG
- increase pressure of RV pushing blood to the RA, causing backing up pressure of the veins causing C wave

48

venous pulse pressure tracing
X descent

- decreasing atrial pressure during atrial relaxation
- separated into two segments when the c wave is recorded
- it occurs in atrial fibrillation and tricuspid insufficiency

49

venous pulse pressure tracing
y descent

- rapid filling of the right ventricle after opening of the tricuspid valve
- tricuspid insufficiency
- tricuspid stenosis

50

atrial fibrillation

- loosing the X descent

51

tricuspid insufficiency

- elevated V wave
- due to regurgitation of blood into the RA

52

tricuspid stenosis

- x descent will be less
- due to obstruction