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Flashcards in GIT PHYSIOLOGY Deck (32):
1

Zollinger Ellison - Syndrome

- best diagnostic test
- SECRETIN TEST normal gastrin level should drop
- treatment PPI

2

acetylcholine increase

- on salivary glands increases salivary secretion increase Ach
- dry mouth decrease Ach
- increases GI motility, colonic motility, small intestine motility (excess Ach)
- detrusor muscle urinary retention (decrease)
- diarrhea
- angle closure glaucoma
- defecation
- constipation (decrease)

3

tricyclics anti depressant (anticholinergics)

- dry mouth
- urinary retention
- constipation

4

acetylcholine excess

- Myasthenia Gravis
- nerve gas attack
- crop duster

5

acetylcholine decrease

- pathologic decrease atropine
- ipatropium bromide
- tricyclic antidepressants

6

dementia therapy MG drugs

- donepazil
- ribosigmine
- galantimine
IT INCREASE ACETYLCHOLINE IN THE BRAIN

7

case:
patient on a dementia medication suddenly develops
increase salivation, urination, defecation

mechanism:
- increase acetylcholine in the brain
- acetylcholine increase GI motility, make the detrusor muscle contract

8

case:
patient with COPD under treatment suddenly develops constipation dry mouth

mechanism:
ipatropium bromide anti cholinergic

9

dyspnea, caused by asthma

- methacholine stimulation testing

10

sympathetic (NOREPINEPHRINE)

- GI motility is decreased
- dry decrease secretion
- increase constriction of sphincter
- SLOWS
- DRIES
- DILATES bronchi to increase oxygenation

11

ASTHMATICS

- treatment increase sympathetic
- beta agonist
- dilates and dries

12

NE and Epinephrine

- shut down bowels by contraction
- shut down saliva
- open eyes
- open bronchi
- constricts blood vessels to shunt blood from the skin to heart to brain

13

acetylcholine (parasympathetic)

- increase motility
- increase secretion
- decrease constrictions of sphincters
- AN INCREASE IN PARASYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY PROMOTES DIGESTIVE AND ABSORPTIVE PROCESSES

14

gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP)

- vagus
- acetylcholine
- vagal stimulation increase salivation and GI motility (STRETCH OF THE STOMACH)

15

URGE INCONTINENCE (overactive bladder syndrome)

- medications such as antimuscarinic drugs (e.g., darifenacin, hyoscyamine, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine)
- anticholinergic
- SE dry mouth

16

exocrine

- to the duct

17

endocrine

- to the blood stream

18

paracrine

- histamine

19

secretin

- from the S cells lining the duodenum
- make HCO3 to neutralized the acid (from LIVER and PANCREAS)

20

pancreas produce mainly

- HCO3 and fluids 80-90% (PPI)
- insulin 1% controls the metabolic rate of cells in the body

21

CCK

- fats goes to duodenum, duodenal cells makes CCK make the pancreas secrete lipase and the gallbladder makes the bile
- no bile no fat absorption (saponification of the fats) lipase dissolve it for absorption

22

gallbladder contract

- sphincter of oddi open

23

# 1 stimulant for gastrin secretion (parasympathetic)

- distention/stretch of stomach stimulates vagus which makes acetylcholine which secretes gastrin
- GRP

24

protein peptides

- increase gastrin secretion (predominant product is acid pepsinogen)
- PEPSINOGEN digest protein

25

stretch of stomach

- time to digest
- by digesting proteins
- by increasing gastrin
- by increasing motility (the only function of gastrin, the only feedback inhibition, neural inhibition)

26

GASTRIN FUNCTIONS

by increasing motility (the only function of gastrin, the only feedback inhibition, neural inhibition)

27

GASTIC ULCERS ARE FROM

- PEPSIN

28

milk containing diet

- secretes gastrin

29

all are inhibitory except

- GASTRIN

30

GASTIC INHIBITORY PEPTIDE (GIP)

- are stimulated by CHO
- and increase INSULIN

31

CHO makes

- GIP to make insulin

32

which has a greater INCREASE IN INSULIN
oral glucose vs IV glucose

- oral sugars due to GIP
- all GI hormones INCREASE INSULIN but GIP INCREASES IT MORE