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Flashcards in salivary secretion Deck (38):
1

parotid gland

- secretion serous (lack mucin)
- thin

2

submandibular and sublingual

- mixed mucus and serous
- thick

3

salivary secretion is controlled by

- parasympathetic (high volume but thinner) and sympathetic (low volume but thicker) both stimulate saliva secretion
- not under hormonal control
- CHLORIDE PUMP only found in saliva

4

saliva has

- low osmolality making saliva hypotonic (NaCl goes out HCO3 comes in)
- HCO3 neutralized acid (acetazolamide inhibit HCO3 going to saliva)
- decrease HCO3 rotting of teeth
- hyposmolar
- if hypertonic won't be able to taste food

5

GI

- sympathetic low action
- parasympathetic increase action

6

HIV transfer in saliva is not possible due to

- IgA neutralizes infection

7

sjogren syndrome (autoimmune disease)

- attacking salivary and lacrimal ducts
- dry eyes, dyspareunia, loose teeth

8

saliva

- amylase and lipase to taste better and for better digestion (though its not necessary for life no like in pancreas)

9

gastric mucosa secrete

- highly viscous alkaline fluid (mucin plus HCO3)
- for protection from HCL

10

NSAIDS such aspirin

- decrease secretion of mucin and HCO3
- by inhibiting prostaglandin (from stretch)

11

gastic pH

- 1.0 more acid than the blood

12

stretch/distension

- makes the acids (ACh, gastrin etc.)

13

parietal cells

- HCL
- intrinsic factor combines with vitamin B12
- reabsorbed in distal ileum

14

chief cells

- pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by H+
- pepsin begins the digestion of protein

15

mucous neck cells

- secrete the protective mucus, HCO3 combination

16

pepsin

- not essential for life

17

intrinsic factor

- only content of stomach that is essential for life

18

pernicious anemia

- intrinsic factor

19

substances that stimulate PARIETAL CELLS

- ACETYLCHOLINE acting as a transmitter (neural)
- HISTAMINE (paracrine)
- GASTRIN (hormonal)

20

H2 blockers

- ranitidine
- cimetidine
- famotidine
CAUSE A 65% OF REDUCTION OF ACID (2/3)
reason for H2 blockers are partially effective because there are still gastrin and ACh but histamine potentiate the other 2

21

somatostatin inhibits the

- parietal cells

22

the highest pH in the body is the

- venous blood leaving the stomach
- alkaline tide

23

site of action of PPI

- H/K-ATPase
- PPI is much effective than H2 blockers

24

pancreas is a

- HCO3 PRODUCING ORGAN
- 2-3 L/day
- makes trypsin
- major product is HCO3

25

trypsinogen to trypsin

- enterokinase (in the wall of the duodenum)

26

chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin (endopeptidase)

- trypsin

27

procarboxypeptidase to carboxypeptidase (exopeptidase)

- trypsin

28

lipACE
amylACE
has the same starch linkages/same bond

- ACE are secreted ACTIVE

29

chymotrypsinOGEN
trypsinOGEN
pancreatic protease (aka zymOGEN)
pepsinOGEN
have different protein linkages/bonds

- OGEN are secreted INACTIVE

30

premature activation of TRYPSINOGEN

- it the etiology of PANCREATITIS
- alcoholic patient with severe epigastric pain nausea vomiting

31

pancreas makes

- inactive digestive enzymes

32

pancreas

- 80-90% is a duct exocrine
- 2% is beta cells
- 8% arteries, veins, nerves connective tissues

33

pancreas

- 80-90% exocrine duct
- product 2-3L/day
- product HCO3

34

pancreatic secretions

- most regulation is controlled via two hormones
- secretin
- cholecystokinin

35

secretin

- main action is to neutralize stomach acid entering the duodenum
- release of fluid high in HCO3
- is in response mostly in acid

36

cholecystokinin

- action on the pancreas is the release of enzyme (amylase, lipase, proteases)
- is in response mostly in fat
- stimulates the release of trypsin

37

salivary

- neural
- vagal stimulation

38

stomach

- mixed
- gastrin (hormonal)
- vagal stimulation (neural)
- histamine (paracrine)