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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (92):
1

Pulsatile, expansile mass

AAA

2

Jerky pulse

HOCM or MR

3

Aschoff nodules

Rheumatic fever

4

Delta waves

WPW syndrome

5

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

6

Cannon 'a' waves

Complete heart block

7

S1Q3T3

Pulmonary embolism

8

Corrigan's sign

Aortic regurgitation (Collapsing carotid pulse)

9

Pansystolic murmur radiating to the axilla

Mitral regurgitation

10

De Musset's sign

Aortic regurgitation (Nodding of the head in time with systolic pulse)

11

Early diastolic murmur heard at the left sternal edge

Aortic regurgitation

12

Quincke's sign

Aortic regurgitation (Pulsation of capillary bed in the nail)

13

Water hammer pulse

Aortic regurgitation

14

Roth spots

Infective endocarditis

15

Traube's sign

Aortic regurgitation (Femoral pistol shot)

16

Global saddle ST elevation and PR depression

Pericarditis

17

Large 'v' waves and pansystolic murmur

Tricuspid regurgitation

18

Harsh pansystolic murmur over the lower left sternal edge and left parasternal heave

Ventricular septal defect

19

Globular heart shape or water bottle heart

Pericarditis

20

Ejection systolic murmur with fixed splitting of S2

Atrial septal defect

21

Ejection systolic murmur radiating to the carotids

Aortic stenosis

22

JVP increase on inspiration / Kussmaul sign

Constrictive pericarditis, pericardial effusion or tamponade

23

Ejection systolic murmur with family history

HOCM

24

Hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia, hypomagnasaemia OR sotalol and erythromycin can cause...

Long QT syndrome

25

Beck's triad

Tamponade (Blood pressure low, elevated JVP, cardiac sounds muffled)

26

Prominent "x" and "y" descents

Constrictive pericarditis

27

Young female with palpitations

Supraventricular tachycardia

28

Ejection systolic murmur louder on Valsalva manoeuvre

HOCM

29

Female with eating disorder with palpitations

Torsades (due to hypokalaemia)

30

Fever, SOB and chest pain a few weeks post MI

Dressler's syndrome

31

Tall R waves in V1/V2, ST depression in V1-3

Posterior MI

32

Elderly man with palpitations, syncope and bradycardia

Sick sinus syndrome

33

Widespread peaked T waves with PR prolongation

Hyperkalaemia

34

Persistent ST elevation 6 weeks post-MI with deep Q waves

Ventricular aneurysm

35

Young male with ruptured mitral valve

Myxoid valve disease (MVP)

36

Pallor, mitral insufficiency, haematuria and splenomegaly

Infective endocarditis

37

Double shadow right heart border, prominent left atrial appendage and left main bronchus elevation

Mitral stenosis

38

Strep pyogenes, diastolic rumble

Mitral stenosis (most common valve affected by rheumatic heart disease)

39

Loud P2

Pulmonary hypertension

40

S3 heart sound

Volume overload (heart failure, APO)

41

S4 heart sound

Pressure overload (hypertension) or normal

42

Anacrotic (slow-rising) pulse

Aortic stenosis

43

Pulsus alternans

Left ventricular failure

44

Elevated JVP with absent pulsation

SVC obstruction

45

Large 'a' waves and slow 'y' descent on JVP. Patient has ascites

Tricuspid stenosis

46

Cause of hypertension in a smoker with PVD

Renal artery stenosis

47

Recurrent collapse, delayed presentation

Complete heart block

48

Alcoholism + displaced apex beat

Dilated cardiomyopathy causing mitral regurgitation

49

Narrow complex tachycardia 150bpm

Atrial flutter with 2:1 block

50

Initial investigation for APO

ECG (rule out AMI as a cause)

51

Test to diagnose RHD

Antistreptolysin O antibody

52

Duroziez's sign

Aortic insufficiency (femoral bruit when occluding the femoral artery distally)

53

Investigation for best prognostic information in CCF

TTE

54

Prominent U waves

Hypokalaemia

55

Widened QRS complex

Hyperkalaemia

56

SVT not corrected by vasovagal manouevres or adenosine

Atrial tachycardia

57

Tapping, undisplaced apex beat

Mitral stenosis

58

Treatment of AF >48h

Digoxin + warfarin for 1 month then cardioversion

59

DRUG SE: diabetic drug exacerbating heart failure

Pioglitazone

60

DRUG: treatment/prophylaxis of VT

IV amiodarone

61

DRUG: aids diagnosis in regular narrow-complex tachycardia

IV adenosine (differentiates SVT from afib with rapid ventricular response)

62

DRUG: prophylaxis against torsades

IV magnesium + ventricular pacing

63

DRUG: treats hypertensive crisis

Labetalol

64

DRUG: treats severe symptomatic sinus bradycardia

Atropine (inhibits vagal tone of the heart)

65

DRUG SE: pulmonary fibrosis

Amiodarone

66

DRUG SE: gum hyperplasia

Nifedipine

67

DRUG SE: hypertrichosis

Minoxidil

68

DRUG SE: SLE-like syndrome

Hydralazine

69

DRUG SE: confusion and tremor in elderly patient

Lidocaine

70

DRUG SE: lipid disturbance

Beta blocker

71

DRUG SE: first line for HOCM

Beta blocker

72

DRUG SE: exercise intolerance

Beta blocker

73

DRUG SE: gynaecomastia

Spironolactone

74

DRUG SE: GORD

Calcium channel blocker

75

DRUG SE: hypo/hyperthyroidism

Amiodarone

76

DRUG: highest mortality benefit in acute coronary syndrome

Statin

77

DRUG: highest mortality benefit in heart failure (3)

  1. ACE inhibitors
  2. Beta blockers
  3. Spironolactone

78

DRUG: first line for angina to prevent symptoms

Beta blocker If contraindicated, use centrally acting calcium channel blocker

79

DRUG SE: vivid dreams/hallucinations

Atenolol

80

DRUG SE: reverse tick on ECG

Digoxin

81

DRUG SE: hyperkalaemia (3)

  1. ACE inhibitors
  2. Spironolactone
  3. Digoxin

82

DRUG SE: erectile dysfunction

Beta blocker

83

DRUG SE: headache

GTN

84

DRUG SE: constipation

Calcium channel blocker (e.g. verapamil)

85

DRUG SE: reflex tachycardia

Dihydropyridine (peripheral) calcium channel blocker

86

DRUG SE: yellow vision + hyperkalaemia

Digoxin

87

DRUG SE: photosensitive rash

Amiodarone

88

DRUG: treatment of unstable angina in a patient awaiting coronary stent

Abciximab

89

DRUG SE: acute tubular necrosis

Statin

Also aminoglycosides and cytotoxic drugs

90

Ejection systolic murmur + menorrhagia 

Flow murmur

91

Low HDL in a muscular male

Dyslipidaemia secondary to abuse of anabolic steroids

92

Swollen, uncomfortable legs and distended veins on the abdomen post-partum

Iliac vein thrombosis